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Juliet Clutton

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date: 26 May 2022

This chapter in the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Specialties explores orthopaedics. It explains terminology and principles of examination, and reviews different areas of the body in turn: the neck and neck pathologies are described, as well as the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand. Back examination is discussed and causes of back pain are described alongside simple lower back pain and specific and sometimes sinister back pain. The hip is investigated, from history and examination to painful hips in children and developmental dysplasia. Knees and feet are explored, including club foot and knee history and examination, pain in the knee, and knees that swell. Bones are discussed, including osteomyelitis and benign and malignant bone tumours, congenital disorders of bone and cartilage, and osteochondroses. Joints are investigated, from joint replacement (arthroplasty) to aspiration, injections, and tendon rupture and injury. Soft tissue and sports injuries are also explored.

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