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Alastair Denniston

and Priscilla Mathewson

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date: 25 May 2022

This chapter in the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Specialties explores the specialty of ophthalmology. Starting with an ophthalmic glossary, it describes in depth how to assess the eyes and flags some key points to remember. Eye conditions such as acute glaucoma, acute anterior uveitis, episcleritis, corneal ulcers, ophthalmic shingles, conjunctivitis, and allergic eye disease are investigated. Tears and lacrimation are explored, along with blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, and orbital swelling. Retinal problems such as retinoblastoma, loss of vision, primary open-angle glaucoma, cataract, macular degeneration, and retinal detachment are described, moving on to visual field defects, squint, and pupil problems. Systemic disease and diabetes mellitus are explored, as well as ocular disease in pregnancy, the effect of drugs on the eye, and tropical eye disease. A look at vision rounds off the chapter, with refraction, contact lenses, refractive procedures, and blindness, before a glimpse of the possible future for the eye.

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