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Emergency medicine 

Emergency medicine
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date: 26 May 2022

Chapter 9: Emergency medicine

1 Shirley J. Surgeon Captain Rick Jolly obituary. The Guardian 2018 24 Jan. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/jan/24/surgeon-captain-rick-jolly-obituary

2 Williams DJ. Brief history of the specialty of emergency medicine. Emerg Med J 2018;35(3):139–41. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2017-207257 [published Online First: 2017/12/08]Find this resource:

3 Gordon LJ, Rees CE, Ker JS, et al. Leadership and followership in the healthcare workplace: exploring medical trainees' experiences through narrative inquiry. BMJ Open 2015;5(12): e008898. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008898 [published Online First: 2015/12/03]Find this resource:

4 Knight LJ, Gabhart JM, Earnest KS, et al. Improving code team performance and survival outcomes: implementation of pediatric resuscitation team training. Crit Care Med 2014;42(2):243–51. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182a6439d [published Online First: 2013/10/26]Find this resource:

5 Calder LA, Mastoras G, Rahimpour M, et al. Team communication patterns in emergency resuscitation: a mixed methods qualitative analysis. Int J Emerg Med 2017;10(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s12245-017-0149-4 [published Online First: 2017/07/15]Find this resource:

6 Tannenbaum SI, Cerasoli CP. Do team and individual debriefs enhance performance? A meta-analysis. Hum Factors 2013;55(1):231–45. doi: 10.1177/0018720812448394 [published Online First: 2013/03/23]Find this resource:

7 Gundrosen S, Andenaes E, Aadahl P, et al. Team talk and team activity in simulated medical emergencies: a discourse analytical approach. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2016;24(1):135. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0325-1 [published Online First: 2016/11/16]Find this resource:

8 Campbell P, Boyle A, Higginson I. Should we scrap the target of a maximum four hour wait in emergency departments? BMJ 2017;359:j4857. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j4857 [published Online First: 2017/10/27]Find this resource:

9 Mason S, Knowles E, Boyle A. Exit block in emergency departments: a rapid evidence review. Emerg Med J 2017;34(1):46–51. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2015-205201 [published Online First: 2016/11/01]Find this resource:

10 Mitchell GW. A brief history of triage. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2008;2(Suppl 1):S4–7. doi: 10.1097/DMP.0b013e3181844d43 [published Online First: 2008/09/11]Find this resource:

11 Robinson PM, O'Meara MJ. The Thomas splint: its origins and use in trauma. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2009;91(4):540–4. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.91B4.21962 [published Online First: 2009/04/02]Find this resource:

12 Crosskerry P. Cognitive debiasing 1: origins of bias and theory of debiasing. BMJ Qual Saf 2013;22:ii58–64.Find this resource:

13 Crosskerry P. Achieving quality in clinical decision making: cognitive strategies and detection of bias. Acad Emerg Med 2002;9(11):1184–203.Find this resource:

14 Sonis JD, Aaronson EL, Lee RY, et al. Emergency department patient experience: a systematic review of the literature. J Patient Exp 2018;5(2):101–6. doi: 10.1177/2374373517731359 [published Online First: 2018/07/07]Find this resource:

15 Taylor DM, Wolfe R, Cameron PA. Complaints from emergency department patients largely result from treatment and communication problems. Emerg Med (Fremantle) 2002;14(1):43–9.Find this resource:

16 Sheikh H, Brezar A, Dzwonek A, et al. Patient understanding of discharge instructions in the emergency department: do different patients need different approaches? Int J Emerg Med 2018;11(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s12245-018-0164-0 [published Online First: 2018/02/10]Find this resource:

17 Moe J, Kirkland S, Ospina MB, et al. Mortality, admission rates and outpatient use among frequent users of emergency departments: a systematic review. Emerg Med J 2016;33(3):230–6. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2014-204496 [published Online First: 2015/05/09]Find this resource:

18 Bland L. Good medicine in bad places. EMJ Suppl 2014;May:3–4.Find this resource:

19 Mutschler M, Nienaber U, Munzberg M, et al. The Shock Index revisited – a fast guide to transfusion requirement? A retrospective analysis on 21,853 patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU. Crit Care 2013;17(4):R172. doi: 10.1186/cc12851 [published Online First: 2013/08/14]Find this resource:

20 Katz V, Balderston K, DeFreest M. Perimortem cesarean delivery: were our assumptions correct? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192(6):1916–20; discussion 20–1. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2005.02.038 [published Online First: 2005/06/23]Find this resource:

21 Gunja N, Graudins A. Management of cardiac arrest following poisoning. Emerg Med Australas 2011;23(1):16–22. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-6723.2010.01369.x [published Online First: 2011/02/03]Find this resource:

22 Smith JE, Rickard A, Wise D. Traumatic cardiac arrest. J R Soc Med 2015;108(1):11–6. doi: 10.1177/0141076814560837 [published Online First: 2015/01/13]Find this resource:

23 Vassallo J, Nutbeam T, Rickard AC, et al. Paediatric traumatic cardiac arrest: the development of an algorithm to guide recognition, management and decisions to terminate resuscitation. Emerg Med J 2018 doi: 10.1136/emermed-2018-207739 [published Online First: 2018/08/30]Find this resource:

24 Perkins GD, Travers AH, Berg RA, et al. Part 3: Adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 2015;95:e43–69. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.07.041 [published Online First: 2015/10/20]Find this resource:

25 Perkins GD, Lall R, Quinn T, et al. Mechanical versus manual chest compression for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (PARAMEDIC): a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2015;385(9972):947–55. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61886-9 [published Online First: 2014/12/04]Find this resource:

26 Perkins GD, Ji C, Deakin CD, et al. A randomized trial of epinephrine in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 2018;379(8):711–21. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1806842 [published Online First: 2018/07/19]Find this resource:

27 Perkins GD, Lockey AS, de Belder MA, et al. National initiatives to improve outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in England. Emerg Med J 2016;33(7):448–51. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2015-204847 [published Online First: 2015/09/25]Find this resource:

28 Furyk J, Levas D, Close B, et al. Intravenous versus oral paracetamol for acute pain in adults in the emergency department setting: a prospective, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial. Emerg Med J 2018;35(3):179–84. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2017-206787 [published Online First: 2017/12/17]Find this resource:

29 Pathan SA, Mitra B, Straney LD, et al. Delivering safe and effective analgesia for management of renal colic in the emergency department: a double-blind, multigroup, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2016;387(10032):1999–2007. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00652-8 [published Online First: 2016/03/20]Find this resource:

30 Atkinson P, French J, Nice CA. Procedural sedation and analgesia for adults in the emergency department. BMJ 2014;348:g2965. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g2965 [published Online First: 2014/05/09]Find this resource:

31 Smith JE, Rockett M, S SC, et al. PAin SoluTions In the Emergency Setting (PASTIES) – patient controlled analgesia versus routine care in emergency department patients with pain from traumatic injuries: randomised trial. BMJ 2015;350:h2988. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h2988 [published Online First: 2015/06/23]Find this resource:

32 Duncan C, Riley B. Low-dose ketamine for acute pain in the ED. Emerg Med J 2016;33:892–93.Find this resource:

33 Roberts I, Shakur H, Coats T, et al. The CRASH-2 trial: a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of the effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events and transfusion requirement in bleeding trauma patients. Health Technol Assess 2013;17(10):1–79. doi: 10.3310/hta17100 [published Online First: 2013/03/13]Find this resource:

34 A Hutchinson et al. Trial of Decompressive craniectomy for traumatic intracranial hypertension. N Engl J Med 2016 375:1119–1130. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1605215. 3Find this resource:

35 McCullough AL, Haycock JC, Forward DP, et al. II. Major trauma networks in England. Br J Anaesth 2014;113(2):202–6. doi: 10.1093/bja/aeu204 [published Online First: 2014/07/20]Find this resource:

36 World Health Organization. Injuries and Violence: The Facts. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.Find this resource:

37 Kehoe A, Smith JE, Edwards A, et al. The changing face of major trauma in the UK. Emerg Med J 2015;32(12):911–5. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2015-205265 [published Online First: 2015/11/26]Find this resource:

38 Evans SA, Airey MC, Chell SM, et al. Disability in young adults following major trauma: 5 year follow up of survivors. BMC Public Health 2003;3:8. [published Online First: 2003/01/28]Find this resource:

39 Fleming S, Bird R, Ratnasingham K, et al. Accuracy of FAST scan in blunt abdominal trauma in a major London trauma centre. Int J Surg 2012;10(9):470–4. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2012.05.011 [published Online First: 2012/06/05]Find this resource:

40 Desai N, Harris T. Extended focussed assessment with sonography in Trauma. BJA Educ 2018;18(2):57–62.Find this resource:

41 Mitra B, Tullio F, Cameron PA, et al. Trauma patients with the 'triad of death'. Emerg Med J 2012;29(8):622–5. doi: 10.1136/emj.2011.113167 [published Online First: 2011/07/26]Find this resource:

42 Jurkovich GJ, Greiser WB, Luterman A, et al. Hypothermia in trauma victims: an ominous predictor of survival. J Trauma 1987;27(9):1019–24. [published Online First: 1987/09/01]Find this resource:

43 Maegele M, Lefering R, Yucel N, et al. Early coagulopathy in multiple injury: an analysis from the German Trauma Registry on 8724 patients. Injury 2007;38(3):298–304. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2006.10.003 [published Online First: 2007/01/12]Find this resource:

44 Gruen RL, Jurkovich GJ, McIntyre LK, et al. Patterns of errors contributing to trauma mortality: lessons learned from 2,594 deaths. Ann Surg 2006;244(3):371–80. doi: 10.1097/01.sla.0000234655.83517.56 [published Online First: 2006/08/24]Find this resource:

45 van der Naalt J, van Zomeren AH, Sluiter WJ, et al. One year outcome in mild to moderate head injury: the predictive value of acute injury characteristics related to complaints and return to work. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999;66(2):207–13. [published Online First: 1999/03/10]Find this resource:

46 Shivaji T, Lee A, Dougall N, et al. The epidemiology of hospital treated traumatic brain injury in Scotland. BMC Neurol 2014;14:2. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-14-2 [published Online First: 2014/01/07]Find this resource:

47 Vardy J, Keliher T, Fisher J, et al. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication. BMJ Open 2016;6(6):e010005. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010005 [published Online First: 2016/06/22]Find this resource:

48 Mooney GP, Comerford DM. Neurological observations. Nurs Times 2003;99(17):24–5. [published Online First: 2003/05/16]Find this resource:

49 NICE. Head injury: assessment and early management (CG176). NICE: 2014 (updated 2019). https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg176

50 Melville LD, Shah K. Is antiplatelet therapy an independent risk factor for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients with mild traumatic brain injury? Ann Emerg Med 2017;70(6):910–11. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2017.05.031 [published Online First: 2017/07/10]Find this resource:

51 Smith JE, Greaves I, Porter M. Head Injury in Major Trauma (Oxford Desk Reference). Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2010.Find this resource:

52 Jackson L. Use of troponin for the diagnosis of myocardial contusion after blunt chest trauma. BestBETS; 2005. http://bestbets.org/bets/bet.php?id=464

53 Nickson C, Rippey J. Ultrasonography of sternal fractures. Australas J Ultrasound Med 2011;14(4):6–11. doi: 10.1002/j.2205-0140.2011.tb00131.x [published Online First: 2011/11/01]Find this resource:

54 Dua A, McMaster J, Desai PJ, et al. The association between blunt cardiac injury and isolated sternal fracture. Cardiol Res Pract 2014;2014:629687. doi: 10.1155/2014/629687 [published Online First: 2014/03/22]Find this resource:

55 Gottschalk HP, Browne RH, Starr AJ. Shoulder girdle: patterns of trauma and associated injuries. J Orthop Trauma 2011;25(5):266–71. doi: 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3181e47975 [published Online First: 2011/04/06]Find this resource:

56 Witt CE, Bulger EM. Comprehensive approach to the management of the patient with multiple rib fractures: a review and introduction of a bundled rib fracture management protocol. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open 2017;2(1):e000064. doi: 10.1136/tsaco-2016-000064 [published Online First: 2017/01/05]Find this resource:

57 Wise D, Davies G, Coats T, et al. Emergency thoracotomy: ‘how to do it’. Emerg Med J 2005;22(1):22–4. doi: 10.1136/emj.2003.012963 [published Online First: 2004/12/22]Find this resource:

58 Davies GE, Lockey DJ. Thirteen survivors of prehospital thoracotomy for penetrating trauma: a prehospital physician-performed resuscitation procedure that can yield good results. J Trauma 2011;70(5):E75–E78. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181f6f72f.Find this resource:

59 Taviloglu K. When to operate on abdominal stab wounds. Scand J Surg 2002;91(1):58–61. doi: 10.1177/145749690209100109 [published Online First: 2002/06/22]Find this resource:

60 Pande R, Saratzis A, Winter Beatty J, et al. Contemporary characteristics of blunt abdominal trauma in a regional series from the UK. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2017;99(1):82–7. doi: 10.1308/rcsann.2016.0223 [published Online First: 2016/08/05]Find this resource:

61 Bhagvan S, Turai M, Holden A, et al. Predicting hollow viscus injury in blunt abdominal trauma with computed tomography. World J Surg 2013;37(1):123–6. doi: 10.1007/s00268-012-1798-3 [published Online First: 2012/10/12]Find this resource:

62 Demetriades D, Karaiskakis M, Toutouzas K, et al. Pelvic fractures: epidemiology and predictors of associated abdominal injuries and outcomes. J Am Coll Surg 2002;195(1):1–10. [published Online First: 2002/07/13]Find this resource:

63 Cullinane DC, Schiller HJ, Zielinski MD, et al. Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guidelines for hemorrhage in pelvic fracture – update and systematic review. J Trauma 2011;71(6):1850–68. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31823dca9a [published Online First: 2011/12/21]Find this resource:

64 Cuttle L, Kempf M, Liu PY, et al. The optimal duration and delay of first aid treatment for deep partial thickness burn injuries. Burns 2010;36(5):673–9. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2009.08.002 [published Online First: 2009/11/03]Find this resource:

65 Benson A, Dickson WA, Boyce DE. Burns. BMJ 2006;332(7542):649–52. doi: 10.1136/bmj.332.7542.649 [published Online First: 2006/03/18]Find this resource:

66 Hettiaratchy S, Papini R. Initial management of a major burn: II – assessment and resuscitation. BMJ 2004;329(7457):101–3. doi: 10.1136/bmj.329.7457.101 [published Online First: 2004/07/10]Find this resource:

67 Barnes J, Duffy A, Hamnett N, et al. The Mersey Burns App: evolving a model of validation. Emerg Med J 2015;32(8):637–41. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2013-203416 [published Online First: 2014/11/06]Find this resource:

68 Dries DJ, Endorf FW. Inhalation injury: epidemiology, pathology, treatment strategies. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2013;21:31. doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-21-31 [published Online First: 2013/04/20]Find this resource:

69 Anseeuw K, Delvau N, Burillo-Putze G, et al. Cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus. Eur J Emerg Med 2013;20(1):2–9. doi: 10.1097/MEJ.0b013e328357170b [published Online First: 2012/07/26]Find this resource:

70 Loftus A, Pynn H, Parker P. Improvised first aid techniques for terrorist attacks. Emerg Med J 2018;35(8):516–21. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2018-207480 [published Online First: 2018/06/17]Find this resource:

71 Lewis CJ, Al-Mousawi A, Jha A, et al. Is it time for a change in the approach to chemical burns? The role of Diphoterine® in the management of cutaneous and ocular chemical injuries. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2017;70(5):563–67. doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2017.02.013 [published Online First: 2017/03/24]Find this resource:

72 McKee D, Thoma A, Bailey K, et al. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management. Plast Surg (Oakv) 2014;22(2):95–8. [published Online First: 2014/08/13]Find this resource:

73 Paal P, Gordon L, Strapazzon G, et al. Accidental hypothermia – an update . The content of this review is endorsed by the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2016;24(1):111. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0303-7 [published Online First: 2016/09/17]Find this resource:

74 Thien V, Evans D. Heat illnesses in the emergency department: a hot topic. Adv Emerg Nurs 2015;37(3):149–56.Find this resource:

75 Luks AM, McIntosh SE, Grissom CK, et al. Wilderness Medical Society consensus guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute altitude illness. Wilderness Environ Med 2010;21(2):146–55. doi: 10.1016/j.wem.2010.03.002 [published Online First: 2010/07/02]Find this resource:

76 DeGorordo A, Vallejo-Manzur F, Chanin K, et al. Diving emergencies. Resuscitation 2003;59(2):171–80. [published Online First: 2003/11/20]Find this resource:

77 Elsom D, Webb J. Death and injuries from lightning in the UK, 1988–2012. Weather 2014;69(8):221–26.Find this resource:

78 Pfortmueller CA, Yikun Y, Haberkern M, et al. Injuries, sequelae, and treatment of lightning-induced injuries: 10 years of experience at a Swiss trauma center. Emerg Med Int 2012;2012:167698. doi: 10.1155/2012/167698 [published Online First: 2012/06/06]Find this resource:

79 Ferner RE, Dear JW, Bateman DN. Management of paracetamol poisoning. BMJ 2011;342:d2218. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d2218 [published Online First: 2011/04/22]Find this resource:

80 Carroll R, Benger J, Bramley K, et al. Epidemiology, management and outcome of paracetamol poisoning in an inner city emergency department. Emerg Med J 2015;32(2):155–60. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2013-202518 [published Online First: 2013/10/09]Find this resource:

81 Evans CE, Sebastian J. Serotonin syndrome. Emerg Med J 2007;24(4):e20. doi: 10.1136/emj.2006.040550 [published Online First: 2007/03/27]Find this resource:

82 Buckley NA, McManus PR. Fatal toxicity of serotoninergic and other antidepressant drugs: analysis of United Kingdom mortality data. BMJ 2002;325(7376):1332–3. [published Online First: 2002/12/07]Find this resource:

83 Kerr GW, McGuffie AC, Wilkie S. Tricyclic antidepressant overdose: a review. Emerg Med J 2001;18(4):236–41. [published Online First: 2001/07/04]Find this resource:

84 Boyer EW. Management of opioid analgesic overdose. N Engl J Med 2012;367(2):146–55. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1202561 [published Online First: 2012/07/13]Find this resource:

85 Socias ME, Wood E. Epidemic of deaths from fentanyl overdose. BMJ 2017;358:j4355. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j4355 [published Online First: 2017/10/01]Find this resource:

86 Sepsis Trust. Definition of sepsis. 2018. https://sepsistrust.org/

87 McPherson D, Griffiths C, Williams M, et al. Sepsis-associated mortality in England: an analysis of multiple cause of death data from 2001 to 2010. BMJ Open 2013;3(8) doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002586 [published Online First: 2013/08/06]Find this resource:

88 Gotts JE, Matthay MA. Sepsis: pathophysiology and clinical management. BMJ 2016;353:i1585. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i1585 [published Online First: 2016/05/25]Find this resource:

89 Daniels R, Nutbeam T, McNamara G, et al. The sepsis six and the severe sepsis resuscitation bundle: a prospective observational cohort study. Emerg Med J 2011;28(6):507–12. doi: 10.1136/emj.2010.095067 [published Online First: 2010/11/03]Find this resource:

90 Petkar S, Cooper P, Fitzpatrick AP. How to avoid a misdiagnosis in patients presenting with transient loss of consciousness. Postgrad Med J 2006;82(972):630–41. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.2006.046565 [published Online First: 2006/10/28]Find this resource:

91 Kenny RA, McNicholas T. The management of vasovagal syncope. QJM 2016;109(12):767–73. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcw089 [published Online First: 2016/06/25]Find this resource:

92 NICE. Transient loss of consciousness ('blackouts') in over 16s (CG109). NICE;2010 (updated 2014). https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg109

93 MDCalc. San Francisco Syncope Rule. https://www.mdcalc.com/san-francisco-syncope-rule. 2018

94 Bhatt H, Matharu MS, Henderson K, et al. An audit of first seizures presenting to an accident and emergency department. Seizure 2005;14(1):58–61. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2004.10.003 [published Online First: 2005/01/12]Find this resource:

95 Bromfield E, Cavazos J, Sirven J. An Introduction to Epilepsy [Internet]. Chapter 2: Clinical Epilepsy; 2006.Find this resource:

96 Angus-Leppan H. First seizures in adults. BMJ 2014;348:g2470. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g2470 [published Online First: 2014/04/17]Find this resource:

97 Bamford J, Sandercock P, Dennis M, et al. A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in the community: the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project--1981-86. 2. Incidence, case fatality rates and overall outcome at one year of cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1990;53:16–22. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.53.1.16. https://jnnp.bmj.com/content/jnnp/53/1/16.full.pdf

98 NICE. Stroke and transient ischaemic attack in over 16s: diagnosis and initial management (CG68). NICE; 2008 (updated 2017). https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg68

99 MDCalc. ABCD2 score. https://www.mdcalc.com/abcd2-score-tia

100 Tobin W, Hentz J, Bobrow B. Identification of stroke mimics in the emergency department setting. J Brain Dis 2009;1:19–22. doi: 10.4137/jcnsd.s2280Find this resource:

101 Purrucker J, Hametner C, Engelbrecht A. Comparison of stroke recognition and stroke severity scores for stroke detection in a single cohort. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2015;86:1021–8. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2014-309260Find this resource:

102 Flynn D, Ford GA, Rodgers H, et al. A time series evaluation of the FAST National Stroke Awareness Campaign in England. PLoS One 2014;9(8):e104289. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104289 [published Online First: 2014/08/15]Find this resource:

103 Davenport R. Acute headache in the emergency department. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002;72(Suppl 2):ii33–7. [published Online First: 2002/07/18]Find this resource:

104 Perry JJ, Stiell IG, Sivilotti ML, et al. Sensitivity of computed tomography performed within six hours of onset of headache for diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2011;343:d4277. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d4277 [published Online First: 2011/07/20]Find this resource:

105 Suarez J, Tarr W, Selman W. Subarachnoid haemorrhage. N Engl J Med 2006;354:387–96.Find this resource:

106 McGill F, Heyderman RS, Michael BD, et al. The UK joint specialist societies guideline on the diagnosis and management of acute meningitis and meningococcal sepsis in immunocompetent adults. J Infect 2016;72(4):405–38. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2016.01.007 [published Online First: 2016/02/05]Find this resource:

107 Gupta S, Oosthuizen R, Pulfrey S. Treatment of acute migraine in the emergency department. Can Fam Physician 2014;60(1):47–9. [published Online First: 2014/01/24]Find this resource:

108 Soomro B, Khalid S, Alvi S. Analytic study of clinical presentation of intracranial space-occupying lesions in adult patients. Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences;9(3):1–7.Find this resource:

109 GP Notebook. Clinical features: temporal arteritis. 2018. http://gpnotebook.co.uk/simplepage.cfm?ID=322240516

110 GP Notebook. Clinical features: acute angle closure glaucoma. 2018. http://gpnotebook.co.uk/simplepage.cfm?ID=-1422589945&linkID=5418&cook=yes

111 Allroggen H, Abbott RJ. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Postgrad Med J 2000;76(891):12–5. [published Online First: 2000/01/06]Find this resource:

112 Body R, Carley S, Wibberley C, et al. The value of symptoms and signs in the emergent diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. Resuscitation 2010;81(3):281–6. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2009.11.014 [published Online First: 2009/12/29]Find this resource:

113 Wood DM, Hill D, Gunasekera A, et al. Is cocaine use recognised as a risk factor for acute coronary syndrome by doctors in the UK? Postgrad Med J 2007;83(979):325–8. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.2006.053850 [published Online First: 2007/05/10]Find this resource:

114 MDCalc. GRACE score. 2018. https://www.mdcalc.com/grace-acs-risk-mortality-calculator

115 Timmis A. Acute coronary syndromes. BMJ 2015;351:h5153. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h5153 [published Online First: 2015/10/22]Find this resource:

116 Klompas M. Does this patient have an acute thoracic aortic dissection? JAMA 2002;17:2262–72. DOI: 10.1001/jama.287.17.2262Find this resource:

117 Hebballi R, Swanevelder J. Diagnosis and management of aortic dissection. CEACCP 2009;9(1):14–18.Find this resource:

118 Imazio M, Gaita F. Diagnosis and treatment of pericarditis. Heart 2015;101(14):1159–68. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2014-306362 [published Online First: 2015/04/10]Find this resource:

119 Freixa X. Evaluation, management, and treatment of acute pericarditis and myocarditis in the emergency department. Emergencias 2010;22:301–6.Find this resource:

120 Ryu J, Pellikka P, Froehling D. Saddle pulmonary embolism diagnosed by CT angiography: Frequency, clinical features and outcome. Respir Med 2007;101(7):1537–42.Find this resource:

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