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Emergency medicine 

Emergency medicine
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date: 26 May 2022

Chapter 9: Emergency medicine

1 Shirley J. Surgeon Captain Rick Jolly obituary. The Guardian 2018 24 Jan.

2 Williams DJ. Brief history of the specialty of emergency medicine. Emerg Med J 2018;35(3):139–41. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2017-207257 [published Online First: 2017/12/08]Find this resource:

3 Gordon LJ, Rees CE, Ker JS, et al. Leadership and followership in the healthcare workplace: exploring medical trainees' experiences through narrative inquiry. BMJ Open 2015;5(12): e008898. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008898 [published Online First: 2015/12/03]Find this resource:

4 Knight LJ, Gabhart JM, Earnest KS, et al. Improving code team performance and survival outcomes: implementation of pediatric resuscitation team training. Crit Care Med 2014;42(2):243–51. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182a6439d [published Online First: 2013/10/26]Find this resource:

5 Calder LA, Mastoras G, Rahimpour M, et al. Team communication patterns in emergency resuscitation: a mixed methods qualitative analysis. Int J Emerg Med 2017;10(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s12245-017-0149-4 [published Online First: 2017/07/15]Find this resource:

6 Tannenbaum SI, Cerasoli CP. Do team and individual debriefs enhance performance? A meta-analysis. Hum Factors 2013;55(1):231–45. doi: 10.1177/0018720812448394 [published Online First: 2013/03/23]Find this resource:

7 Gundrosen S, Andenaes E, Aadahl P, et al. Team talk and team activity in simulated medical emergencies: a discourse analytical approach. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2016;24(1):135. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0325-1 [published Online First: 2016/11/16]Find this resource:

8 Campbell P, Boyle A, Higginson I. Should we scrap the target of a maximum four hour wait in emergency departments? BMJ 2017;359:j4857. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j4857 [published Online First: 2017/10/27]Find this resource:

9 Mason S, Knowles E, Boyle A. Exit block in emergency departments: a rapid evidence review. Emerg Med J 2017;34(1):46–51. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2015-205201 [published Online First: 2016/11/01]Find this resource:

10 Mitchell GW. A brief history of triage. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2008;2(Suppl 1):S4–7. doi: 10.1097/DMP.0b013e3181844d43 [published Online First: 2008/09/11]Find this resource:

11 Robinson PM, O'Meara MJ. The Thomas splint: its origins and use in trauma. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2009;91(4):540–4. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.91B4.21962 [published Online First: 2009/04/02]Find this resource:

12 Crosskerry P. Cognitive debiasing 1: origins of bias and theory of debiasing. BMJ Qual Saf 2013;22:ii58–64.Find this resource:

13 Crosskerry P. Achieving quality in clinical decision making: cognitive strategies and detection of bias. Acad Emerg Med 2002;9(11):1184–203.Find this resource:

14 Sonis JD, Aaronson EL, Lee RY, et al. Emergency department patient experience: a systematic review of the literature. J Patient Exp 2018;5(2):101–6. doi: 10.1177/2374373517731359 [published Online First: 2018/07/07]Find this resource:

15 Taylor DM, Wolfe R, Cameron PA. Complaints from emergency department patients largely result from treatment and communication problems. Emerg Med (Fremantle) 2002;14(1):43–9.Find this resource:

16 Sheikh H, Brezar A, Dzwonek A, et al. Patient understanding of discharge instructions in the emergency department: do different patients need different approaches? Int J Emerg Med 2018;11(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s12245-018-0164-0 [published Online First: 2018/02/10]Find this resource:

17 Moe J, Kirkland S, Ospina MB, et al. Mortality, admission rates and outpatient use among frequent users of emergency departments: a systematic review. Emerg Med J 2016;33(3):230–6. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2014-204496 [published Online First: 2015/05/09]Find this resource:

18 Bland L. Good medicine in bad places. EMJ Suppl 2014;May:3–4.Find this resource:

19 Mutschler M, Nienaber U, Munzberg M, et al. The Shock Index revisited – a fast guide to transfusion requirement? A retrospective analysis on 21,853 patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU. Crit Care 2013;17(4):R172. doi: 10.1186/cc12851 [published Online First: 2013/08/14]Find this resource:

20 Katz V, Balderston K, DeFreest M. Perimortem cesarean delivery: were our assumptions correct? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192(6):1916–20; discussion 20–1. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2005.02.038 [published Online First: 2005/06/23]Find this resource:

21 Gunja N, Graudins A. Management of cardiac arrest following poisoning. Emerg Med Australas 2011;23(1):16–22. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-6723.2010.01369.x [published Online First: 2011/02/03]Find this resource:

22 Smith JE, Rickard A, Wise D. Traumatic cardiac arrest. J R Soc Med 2015;108(1):11–6. doi: 10.1177/0141076814560837 [published Online First: 2015/01/13]Find this resource:

23 Vassallo J, Nutbeam T, Rickard AC, et al. Paediatric traumatic cardiac arrest: the development of an algorithm to guide recognition, management and decisions to terminate resuscitation. Emerg Med J 2018 doi: 10.1136/emermed-2018-207739 [published Online First: 2018/08/30]Find this resource:

24 Perkins GD, Travers AH, Berg RA, et al. Part 3: Adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 2015;95:e43–69. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.07.041 [published Online First: 2015/10/20]Find this resource:

25 Perkins GD, Lall R, Quinn T, et al. Mechanical versus manual chest compression for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (PARAMEDIC): a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2015;385(9972):947–55. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61886-9 [published Online First: 2014/12/04]Find this resource:

26 Perkins GD, Ji C, Deakin CD, et al. A randomized trial of epinephrine in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 2018;379(8):711–21. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1806842 [published Online First: 2018/07/19]Find this resource:

27 Perkins GD, Lockey AS, de Belder MA, et al. National initiatives to improve outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in England. Emerg Med J 2016;33(7):448–51. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2015-204847 [published Online First: 2015/09/25]Find this resource:

28 Furyk J, Levas D, Close B, et al. Intravenous versus oral paracetamol for acute pain in adults in the emergency department setting: a prospective, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial. Emerg Med J 2018;35(3):179–84. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2017-206787 [published Online First: 2017/12/17]Find this resource:

29 Pathan SA, Mitra B, Straney LD, et al. Delivering safe and effective analgesia for management of renal colic in the emergency department: a double-blind, multigroup, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2016;387(10032):1999–2007. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00652-8 [published Online First: 2016/03/20]Find this resource:

30 Atkinson P, French J, Nice CA. Procedural sedation and analgesia for adults in the emergency department. BMJ 2014;348:g2965. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g2965 [published Online First: 2014/05/09]Find this resource:

31 Smith JE, Rockett M, S SC, et al. PAin SoluTions In the Emergency Setting (PASTIES) – patient controlled analgesia versus routine care in emergency department patients with pain from traumatic injuries: randomised trial. BMJ 2015;350:h2988. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h2988 [published Online First: 2015/06/23]Find this resource:

32 Duncan C, Riley B. Low-dose ketamine for acute pain in the ED. Emerg Med J 2016;33:892–93.Find this resource:

33 Roberts I, Shakur H, Coats T, et al. The CRASH-2 trial: a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of the effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events and transfusion requirement in bleeding trauma patients. Health Technol Assess 2013;17(10):1–79. doi: 10.3310/hta17100 [published Online First: 2013/03/13]Find this resource:

34 A Hutchinson et al. Trial of Decompressive craniectomy for traumatic intracranial hypertension. N Engl J Med 2016 375:1119–1130. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1605215. 3Find this resource:

35 McCullough AL, Haycock JC, Forward DP, et al. II. Major trauma networks in England. Br J Anaesth 2014;113(2):202–6. doi: 10.1093/bja/aeu204 [published Online First: 2014/07/20]Find this resource:

36 World Health Organization. Injuries and Violence: The Facts. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.Find this resource:

37 Kehoe A, Smith JE, Edwards A, et al. The changing face of major trauma in the UK. Emerg Med J 2015;32(12):911–5. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2015-205265 [published Online First: 2015/11/26]Find this resource:

38 Evans SA, Airey MC, Chell SM, et al. Disability in young adults following major trauma: 5 year follow up of survivors. BMC Public Health 2003;3:8. [published Online First: 2003/01/28]Find this resource:

39 Fleming S, Bird R, Ratnasingham K, et al. Accuracy of FAST scan in blunt abdominal trauma in a major London trauma centre. Int J Surg 2012;10(9):470–4. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2012.05.011 [published Online First: 2012/06/05]Find this resource:

40 Desai N, Harris T. Extended focussed assessment with sonography in Trauma. BJA Educ 2018;18(2):57–62.Find this resource:

41 Mitra B, Tullio F, Cameron PA, et al. Trauma patients with the 'triad of death'. Emerg Med J 2012;29(8):622–5. doi: 10.1136/emj.2011.113167 [published Online First: 2011/07/26]Find this resource:

42 Jurkovich GJ, Greiser WB, Luterman A, et al. Hypothermia in trauma victims: an ominous predictor of survival. J Trauma 1987;27(9):1019–24. [published Online First: 1987/09/01]Find this resource:

43 Maegele M, Lefering R, Yucel N, et al. Early coagulopathy in multiple injury: an analysis from the German Trauma Registry on 8724 patients. Injury 2007;38(3):298–304. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2006.10.003 [published Online First: 2007/01/12]Find this resource:

44 Gruen RL, Jurkovich GJ, McIntyre LK, et al. Patterns of errors contributing to trauma mortality: lessons learned from 2,594 deaths. Ann Surg 2006;244(3):371–80. doi: 10.1097/01.sla.0000234655.83517.56 [published Online First: 2006/08/24]Find this resource:

45 van der Naalt J, van Zomeren AH, Sluiter WJ, et al. One year outcome in mild to moderate head injury: the predictive value of acute injury characteristics related to complaints and return to work. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999;66(2):207–13. [published Online First: 1999/03/10]Find this resource:

46 Shivaji T, Lee A, Dougall N, et al. The epidemiology of hospital treated traumatic brain injury in Scotland. BMC Neurol 2014;14:2. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-14-2 [published Online First: 2014/01/07]Find this resource:

47 Vardy J, Keliher T, Fisher J, et al. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication. BMJ Open 2016;6(6):e010005. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010005 [published Online First: 2016/06/22]Find this resource:

48 Mooney GP, Comerford DM. Neurological observations. Nurs Times 2003;99(17):24–5. [published Online First: 2003/05/16]Find this resource:

49 NICE. Head injury: assessment and early management (CG176). NICE: 2014 (updated 2019).

50 Melville LD, Shah K. Is antiplatelet therapy an independent risk factor for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients with mild traumatic brain injury? Ann Emerg Med 2017;70(6):910–11. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2017.05.031 [published Online First: 2017/07/10]Find this resource:

51 Smith JE, Greaves I, Porter M. Head Injury in Major Trauma (Oxford Desk Reference). Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2010.Find this resource:

52 Jackson L. Use of troponin for the diagnosis of myocardial contusion after blunt chest trauma. BestBETS; 2005.

53 Nickson C, Rippey J. Ultrasonography of sternal fractures. Australas J Ultrasound Med 2011;14(4):6–11. doi: 10.1002/j.2205-0140.2011.tb00131.x [published Online First: 2011/11/01]Find this resource:

54 Dua A, McMaster J, Desai PJ, et al. The association between blunt cardiac injury and isolated sternal fracture. Cardiol Res Pract 2014;2014:629687. doi: 10.1155/2014/629687 [published Online First: 2014/03/22]Find this resource:

55 Gottschalk HP, Browne RH, Starr AJ. Shoulder girdle: patterns of trauma and associated injuries. J Orthop Trauma 2011;25(5):266–71. doi: 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3181e47975 [published Online First: 2011/04/06]Find this resource:

56 Witt CE, Bulger EM. Comprehensive approach to the management of the patient with multiple rib fractures: a review and introduction of a bundled rib fracture management protocol. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open 2017;2(1):e000064. doi: 10.1136/tsaco-2016-000064 [published Online First: 2017/01/05]Find this resource:

57 Wise D, Davies G, Coats T, et al. Emergency thoracotomy: ‘how to do it’. Emerg Med J 2005;22(1):22–4. doi: 10.1136/emj.2003.012963 [published Online First: 2004/12/22]Find this resource:

58 Davies GE, Lockey DJ. Thirteen survivors of prehospital thoracotomy for penetrating trauma: a prehospital physician-performed resuscitation procedure that can yield good results. J Trauma 2011;70(5):E75–E78. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181f6f72f.Find this resource:

59 Taviloglu K. When to operate on abdominal stab wounds. Scand J Surg 2002;91(1):58–61. doi: 10.1177/145749690209100109 [published Online First: 2002/06/22]Find this resource:

60 Pande R, Saratzis A, Winter Beatty J, et al. Contemporary characteristics of blunt abdominal trauma in a regional series from the UK. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2017;99(1):82–7. doi: 10.1308/rcsann.2016.0223 [published Online First: 2016/08/05]Find this resource:

61 Bhagvan S, Turai M, Holden A, et al. Predicting hollow viscus injury in blunt abdominal trauma with computed tomography. World J Surg 2013;37(1):123–6. doi: 10.1007/s00268-012-1798-3 [published Online First: 2012/10/12]Find this resource:

62 Demetriades D, Karaiskakis M, Toutouzas K, et al. Pelvic fractures: epidemiology and predictors of associated abdominal injuries and outcomes. J Am Coll Surg 2002;195(1):1–10. [published Online First: 2002/07/13]Find this resource:

63 Cullinane DC, Schiller HJ, Zielinski MD, et al. Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guidelines for hemorrhage in pelvic fracture – update and systematic review. J Trauma 2011;71(6):1850–68. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31823dca9a [published Online First: 2011/12/21]Find this resource:

64 Cuttle L, Kempf M, Liu PY, et al. The optimal duration and delay of first aid treatment for deep partial thickness burn injuries. Burns 2010;36(5):673–9. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2009.08.002 [published Online First: 2009/11/03]Find this resource:

65 Benson A, Dickson WA, Boyce DE. Burns. BMJ 2006;332(7542):649–52. doi: 10.1136/bmj.332.7542.649 [published Online First: 2006/03/18]Find this resource:

66 Hettiaratchy S, Papini R. Initial management of a major burn: II – assessment and resuscitation. BMJ 2004;329(7457):101–3. doi: 10.1136/bmj.329.7457.101 [published Online First: 2004/07/10]Find this resource:

67 Barnes J, Duffy A, Hamnett N, et al. The Mersey Burns App: evolving a model of validation. Emerg Med J 2015;32(8):637–41. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2013-203416 [published Online First: 2014/11/06]Find this resource:

68 Dries DJ, Endorf FW. Inhalation injury: epidemiology, pathology, treatment strategies. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2013;21:31. doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-21-31 [published Online First: 2013/04/20]Find this resource:

69 Anseeuw K, Delvau N, Burillo-Putze G, et al. Cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus. Eur J Emerg Med 2013;20(1):2–9. doi: 10.1097/MEJ.0b013e328357170b [published Online First: 2012/07/26]Find this resource:

70 Loftus A, Pynn H, Parker P. Improvised first aid techniques for terrorist attacks. Emerg Med J 2018;35(8):516–21. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2018-207480 [published Online First: 2018/06/17]Find this resource:

71 Lewis CJ, Al-Mousawi A, Jha A, et al. Is it time for a change in the approach to chemical burns? The role of Diphoterine® in the management of cutaneous and ocular chemical injuries. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2017;70(5):563–67. doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2017.02.013 [published Online First: 2017/03/24]Find this resource:

72 McKee D, Thoma A, Bailey K, et al. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management. Plast Surg (Oakv) 2014;22(2):95–8. [published Online First: 2014/08/13]Find this resource:

73 Paal P, Gordon L, Strapazzon G, et al. Accidental hypothermia – an update . The content of this review is endorsed by the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2016;24(1):111. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0303-7 [published Online First: 2016/09/17]Find this resource:

74 Thien V, Evans D. Heat illnesses in the emergency department: a hot topic. Adv Emerg Nurs 2015;37(3):149–56.Find this resource:

75 Luks AM, McIntosh SE, Grissom CK, et al. Wilderness Medical Society consensus guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute altitude illness. Wilderness Environ Med 2010;21(2):146–55. doi: 10.1016/j.wem.2010.03.002 [published Online First: 2010/07/02]Find this resource:

76 DeGorordo A, Vallejo-Manzur F, Chanin K, et al. Diving emergencies. Resuscitation 2003;59(2):171–80. [published Online First: 2003/11/20]Find this resource:

77 Elsom D, Webb J. Death and injuries from lightning in the UK, 1988–2012. Weather 2014;69(8):221–26.Find this resource:

78 Pfortmueller CA, Yikun Y, Haberkern M, et al. Injuries, sequelae, and treatment of lightning-induced injuries: 10 years of experience at a Swiss trauma center. Emerg Med Int 2012;2012:167698. doi: 10.1155/2012/167698 [published Online First: 2012/06/06]Find this resource:

79 Ferner RE, Dear JW, Bateman DN. Management of paracetamol poisoning. BMJ 2011;342:d2218. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d2218 [published Online First: 2011/04/22]Find this resource:

80 Carroll R, Benger J, Bramley K, et al. Epidemiology, management and outcome of paracetamol poisoning in an inner city emergency department. Emerg Med J 2015;32(2):155–60. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2013-202518 [published Online First: 2013/10/09]Find this resource:

81 Evans CE, Sebastian J. Serotonin syndrome. Emerg Med J 2007;24(4):e20. doi: 10.1136/emj.2006.040550 [published Online First: 2007/03/27]Find this resource:

82 Buckley NA, McManus PR. Fatal toxicity of serotoninergic and other antidepressant drugs: analysis of United Kingdom mortality data. BMJ 2002;325(7376):1332–3. [published Online First: 2002/12/07]Find this resource:

83 Kerr GW, McGuffie AC, Wilkie S. Tricyclic antidepressant overdose: a review. Emerg Med J 2001;18(4):236–41. [published Online First: 2001/07/04]Find this resource:

84 Boyer EW. Management of opioid analgesic overdose. N Engl J Med 2012;367(2):146–55. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1202561 [published Online First: 2012/07/13]Find this resource:

85 Socias ME, Wood E. Epidemic of deaths from fentanyl overdose. BMJ 2017;358:j4355. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j4355 [published Online First: 2017/10/01]Find this resource:

86 Sepsis Trust. Definition of sepsis. 2018.

87 McPherson D, Griffiths C, Williams M, et al. Sepsis-associated mortality in England: an analysis of multiple cause of death data from 2001 to 2010. BMJ Open 2013;3(8) doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002586 [published Online First: 2013/08/06]Find this resource:

88 Gotts JE, Matthay MA. Sepsis: pathophysiology and clinical management. BMJ 2016;353:i1585. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i1585 [published Online First: 2016/05/25]Find this resource:

89 Daniels R, Nutbeam T, McNamara G, et al. The sepsis six and the severe sepsis resuscitation bundle: a prospective observational cohort study. Emerg Med J 2011;28(6):507–12. doi: 10.1136/emj.2010.095067 [published Online First: 2010/11/03]Find this resource:

90 Petkar S, Cooper P, Fitzpatrick AP. How to avoid a misdiagnosis in patients presenting with transient loss of consciousness. Postgrad Med J 2006;82(972):630–41. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.2006.046565 [published Online First: 2006/10/28]Find this resource:

91 Kenny RA, McNicholas T. The management of vasovagal syncope. QJM 2016;109(12):767–73. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcw089 [published Online First: 2016/06/25]Find this resource:

92 NICE. Transient loss of consciousness ('blackouts') in over 16s (CG109). NICE;2010 (updated 2014).

93 MDCalc. San Francisco Syncope Rule. 2018

94 Bhatt H, Matharu MS, Henderson K, et al. An audit of first seizures presenting to an accident and emergency department. Seizure 2005;14(1):58–61. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2004.10.003 [published Online First: 2005/01/12]Find this resource:

95 Bromfield E, Cavazos J, Sirven J. An Introduction to Epilepsy [Internet]. Chapter 2: Clinical Epilepsy; 2006.Find this resource:

96 Angus-Leppan H. First seizures in adults. BMJ 2014;348:g2470. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g2470 [published Online First: 2014/04/17]Find this resource:

97 Bamford J, Sandercock P, Dennis M, et al. A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in the community: the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project--1981-86. 2. Incidence, case fatality rates and overall outcome at one year of cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1990;53:16–22. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.53.1.16.

98 NICE. Stroke and transient ischaemic attack in over 16s: diagnosis and initial management (CG68). NICE; 2008 (updated 2017).

99 MDCalc. ABCD2 score.

100 Tobin W, Hentz J, Bobrow B. Identification of stroke mimics in the emergency department setting. J Brain Dis 2009;1:19–22. doi: 10.4137/jcnsd.s2280Find this resource:

101 Purrucker J, Hametner C, Engelbrecht A. Comparison of stroke recognition and stroke severity scores for stroke detection in a single cohort. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2015;86:1021–8. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2014-309260Find this resource:

102 Flynn D, Ford GA, Rodgers H, et al. A time series evaluation of the FAST National Stroke Awareness Campaign in England. PLoS One 2014;9(8):e104289. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104289 [published Online First: 2014/08/15]Find this resource:

103 Davenport R. Acute headache in the emergency department. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002;72(Suppl 2):ii33–7. [published Online First: 2002/07/18]Find this resource:

104 Perry JJ, Stiell IG, Sivilotti ML, et al. Sensitivity of computed tomography performed within six hours of onset of headache for diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2011;343:d4277. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d4277 [published Online First: 2011/07/20]Find this resource:

105 Suarez J, Tarr W, Selman W. Subarachnoid haemorrhage. N Engl J Med 2006;354:387–96.Find this resource:

106 McGill F, Heyderman RS, Michael BD, et al. The UK joint specialist societies guideline on the diagnosis and management of acute meningitis and meningococcal sepsis in immunocompetent adults. J Infect 2016;72(4):405–38. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2016.01.007 [published Online First: 2016/02/05]Find this resource:

107 Gupta S, Oosthuizen R, Pulfrey S. Treatment of acute migraine in the emergency department. Can Fam Physician 2014;60(1):47–9. [published Online First: 2014/01/24]Find this resource:

108 Soomro B, Khalid S, Alvi S. Analytic study of clinical presentation of intracranial space-occupying lesions in adult patients. Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences;9(3):1–7.Find this resource:

109 GP Notebook. Clinical features: temporal arteritis. 2018.

110 GP Notebook. Clinical features: acute angle closure glaucoma. 2018.

111 Allroggen H, Abbott RJ. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Postgrad Med J 2000;76(891):12–5. [published Online First: 2000/01/06]Find this resource:

112 Body R, Carley S, Wibberley C, et al. The value of symptoms and signs in the emergent diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. Resuscitation 2010;81(3):281–6. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2009.11.014 [published Online First: 2009/12/29]Find this resource:

113 Wood DM, Hill D, Gunasekera A, et al. Is cocaine use recognised as a risk factor for acute coronary syndrome by doctors in the UK? Postgrad Med J 2007;83(979):325–8. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.2006.053850 [published Online First: 2007/05/10]Find this resource:

114 MDCalc. GRACE score. 2018.

115 Timmis A. Acute coronary syndromes. BMJ 2015;351:h5153. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h5153 [published Online First: 2015/10/22]Find this resource:

116 Klompas M. Does this patient have an acute thoracic aortic dissection? JAMA 2002;17:2262–72. DOI: 10.1001/jama.287.17.2262Find this resource:

117 Hebballi R, Swanevelder J. Diagnosis and management of aortic dissection. CEACCP 2009;9(1):14–18.Find this resource:

118 Imazio M, Gaita F. Diagnosis and treatment of pericarditis. Heart 2015;101(14):1159–68. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2014-306362 [published Online First: 2015/04/10]Find this resource:

119 Freixa X. Evaluation, management, and treatment of acute pericarditis and myocarditis in the emergency department. Emergencias 2010;22:301–6.Find this resource:

120 Ryu J, Pellikka P, Froehling D. Saddle pulmonary embolism diagnosed by CT angiography: Frequency, clinical features and outcome. Respir Med 2007;101(7):1537–42.Find this resource:

121 MDCalc. Well's score for PE. 2018.

122 British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee Pulmonary Embolism Guideline Development Group. British Thoracic Society guidelines for the management of suspected acute pulmonary embolism. Thorax 2003;58(6):470–83. [published Online First: 2003/05/31]Find this resource:

123 O'Driscoll BR, Howard LS, Earis J, et al. British Thoracic Society Guideline for oxygen use in adults in healthcare and emergency settings. BMJ Open Respir Res 2017;4(1):e000170. doi: 10.1136/bmjresp-2016-000170 [published Online First: 2017/09/09]Find this resource:

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125 Resuscitation Council (UK). Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions: guidelines for healthcare providers.

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