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date: 02 July 2022

Chapter 3: Paediatrics

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3 Biarent D et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010: Section 6. Paediatric life support. Resuscitation 2010; 81(10):1364–88. PubMed ID: 20956047. this resource:

4 Weiser G et al. Current advances in intraosseous infusion - a systematic review. Resuscitation 2012; 83(1):20–6. PubMed ID: 21871243. this resource:

5 Clinical Education Resources Arrow® EZ-IO® Intraosseous Vascular Access System.

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7 NICE. Anaphylaxis Assessment to confirm an anaphylactic episode and the decision to refer after emergency treatment for a suspected anaphylactic episode (CG134). NICE; 2011.

8 Resuscitation Council (UK). Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions: guidelines for healthcare providers. Working Group of the Resuscitation Council (UK); January 2008.

9 Resuscitation Council (UK). Anaphylaxis. Resuscitation Council (UK); 2005.

10 Resuscitation Council (UK). Resuscitation and support of transition of babies at birth.

11 Bohadana A et al. Fundamentals of lung auscultation. NEJM 2014; 370:744–51. PubMed ID: 24552321.

12 NICE. Fever in under 5s: assessment and initial management (CG160). NICE; 2013.

13 Advanced Life Support Group (ALSG). Advanced Paediatric Life Support: The Practical Approach (5th ed). Manchetser: ALSG; 2011.Find this resource:

14 NICE. Meningitis (bacterial) and meningococcal septicaemia in under 16s: recognition, diagnosis and management (CG102). NICE; 2010, updated 2015.

15 NICE. When to suspect child maltreatment (CG89). NICE; 2009, updated 2017.

16 Bull L. Children’s non-accidental injuries at an accident and emergency department: Does the age of the child and the type of injury matter? Accid Emerg Nurs 2006; 14(3):155–9. PubMed ID: 16934686. this resource:

17 Fong CM et al. Fractures associated with non-accidental injury--an orthopaedic perspective in a local regional hospital. Hong Kong Med J 2005; 11(6):445–51. PubMed ID: 16340020. this resource:

18 Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Child Protection Evidence Systematic review on Bruising. July 2017

19 Child Protection Companion. Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health.

20 Talbot JC et al. Osteoporotic femoral fracture in a child with propionic acidaemia presenting as non-accidental injury. Eur J Pediatr 2006; 165(7):496–7. this resource:

21 Harker E et al. Propionic acidemia in a four-month-old male: a case study and anesthetic implications. Anesth Analg 2000; 91(2):309–11. this resource:

22 NICE. Child maltreatment: when to suspect maltreatment in under 18s (CG89). NICE; 2009, updated 2017.

23 Roelofs K et al. Childhood abuse in patients with conversion disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159(11):1908–13. PubMed ID: 12411227. this resource:

24 Loh WF. Neurological manifestations of children with systemic lupus erythematosus. Med J Malaysia 2000; 55(4):459–63. PubMed ID: 11221157. this resource:

25 The Encephalitis Society. Management of Suspected Viral Encephalitis in Children.

26 Chávez-Bueno S et al. Bacterial meningitis in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 2005; 52(3):795–810, vii. PubMed ID: 15925663. this resource:

27 Al-Abbasi AM. Tuberculous meningoencephalitis in Baghdad, 1993–99: a clinical study of 224 cases. Eastern Mediterranean Health J 2002; March.

28 Lang AM. Clinical evaluation of the Gen-Probe amplified direct test for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol 1998, 36:2191–4. PubMed ID: 9665989.

29 Glasgow Coma Scale modification for Children:

30 British Peadiatric Neurology Association. Child's Glasgow Coma Scale (Revised BPNA 2001).

31 Taylor T. Caring for children with cerebral malaria: insights gleaned from 20 years on a research ward in Malawi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Apr;103 Suppl 1:S6-10. PubMed ID: 19128813.

32 Upadhyay et al. Role of hypertonic saline and mannitol in the management of raised intracranial pressure in children: a randomized comparative study. J Pediatr Neurosci 2010; 5(1):18–21. PubMed ID: 21042500. this resource:

33 Meningitis Research Foundation. Recognition and early management of meningococcal disease in children and young people. Edition 3A.

34 Duncan A. New therapies for severe meningococcal disease but better outcomes? Lancet 1997; 350(9091):1565–6. PubMed ID: 9393331. this resource:

35 Green Book: Chapter 22: Meningococcal September 2016

36 Booy R. Prevention of meningococcal disease. NEJM 2007; 356:524.

37 American Academy of Pediatrics. Meningococcal infections. In: Red Book. American Academy of Pediatrics.

38 Molyneux EM et al. The effect of HIV infection on paediatric bacterial meningitis in Blantyre, Malawi. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88(12):1112–18. PubMed ID: 14670782. this resource:

39 Yogev R et al. Bacterial meningitis in children: critical review of current concepts. Drugs 2005; 65(8):1097–112. PubMed ID: 15907145. this resource:

40 Rivero GA et al. Listeria monocytogenes infection in patients with cancer. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2003; 47(2):393–8. PubMed ID: 14522512. this resource:

41 Thwaites G. Tuberculous meningitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000; 68(3):289–99. this resource:

42 Thwaites G. et al. British Infection Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis of the central nervous system in adults and children. J Infect 2009; 59(3):167–87. PubMed ID: 19643501. this resource:

43 Thwaites GE. Dexamethasone for the treatment of tuberculous meningitis in adolescents and adults. NEJM 2004; 351:1741–51.

44 Skrede S. Treatment of acute bacterial meningitis. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2001; 121(28):3306–9. this resource:

45 Richardson M et al. Evidence base of incubation periods, periods of infectiousness and exclusion policies for the control of communicable diseases in schools and preschools. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001;20(4):380–91. PubMed ID: 11332662. this resource:

46 Shann F et al. Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000; 3:CD001477.

47 Dos Santos BA et al. Prevalence of antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella before and after vaccination of school-age children with three different triple combined viral vaccines, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1996. Rev Panam Salud Publica 2006; 20(5):299–306. PubMed ID: 17316487. this resource:

48 Grais RF et al. Unacceptably high mortality related to measles epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad. PLoS Med 2007; 4(1):e16. PubMed ID: 17199407. this resource:

49 Plotkin SA. Rubella eradication. Vaccine 2001; 19(25–26):3311–19. PubMed ID: 11348695.

50 Servey JT et al. Clinical presentations of parvovirus B19 infection. Am Fam Physician 2007; 75(3):373–6. PubMed ID: 17304869. this resource:

51 Sanghi A. Zoonotic and viral infection in fetal loss after 12 weeks. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104(8):942–5. PubMed ID: 9255087. this resource:

52 Ornoy A et al. Parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy and risks to the fetus. Birth Defects Res. 2017; 109(5):311–23. PubMed ID: 28398685. this resource:

53 Chua KB. The predictive value of uvulo-palatoglossal junctional ulcers as an early clinical sign of exanthem subitum due to human herpesvirus 6. J Clin Virol 2000; 17(2):83–90. PubMed ID: 10942088. this resource:

54 Yoshikawa T. Central nervous system complications in human herpesvirus-6 infection. Brain Dev 2000; 22(5):307–14. PubMed ID: 10891638. this resource:

55 Meremikwu M et al. Physical methods for treating fever in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 2:CD004264. PubMed ID: 12804512.

56 Meremikwu M et al. Paracetamol for treating fever in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; 2:CD003676. PubMed ID: 12076499.

57 Farlow A. Childhood immunisation against varicella zoster virus. BMJ 2008; 337:a1164 PubMed ID: 18713808.

58 van Hoek AJ et al. The cost effectiveness of varicella and combined varicella and herpes zoster vaccination programmes in the United Kingdom. Vaccine 2012; 30(6):1225–34. PubMed ID: 22119592. this resource:

59 Papadopoulos AJ. Chickenpox. Medscape, 2015.

60 Sauerbrei A. The congenital varicella syndrome. J Perinatol 2000; 20(8 Pt 1):548–54. PubMed ID: 11190597.

61 Seidman DS. Varicella vaccine in pregnancy. BMJ 1996; 313(7059):701–2. PubMed ID: 8819427. this resource:

62 Green Book: Chapter 34: Varicella V3_0

63 RCOG. Chicken pox in pregnancy (Green-top Guideline No. 13). RCOG; 2015.

64 Bruel H et al. [Two cases of congenital varicella syndrome: plea for the varicella vaccine.] Arch Pediatr 2004; 11(3):216–8. PubMed ID: 14992768. this resource:

65 Venkatesan P. Chickenpox in pregnancy: how dangerous? Practitioner 1996; 240(1561):256–9. PubMed ID: 8762292. this resource:

66 Coutsoudis A. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in the face of the HIV pandemic. Lancet 2000; 356(9242):1620–1. PubMed ID: 11089813. this resource:

67 Coovadia H et al. Breastfeeding to prevent HIV transmission in infants: balancing pros and cons. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2008; 21(1):11–5. PubMed ID: 18192780. this resource:

68 British HIV Association. Guidelines for the management of HIV infection in pregnant women 2012 (2014 interim review).

69 Sharland M et al. Advances in the prevention and treatment of paediatric HIV infection in the United Kingdom. Arch Dis Child 2002; 87:178–80. PubMed ID: 12193420.

70 Aggarwal M et al. Acute human immunodeficiency virus syndrome in an adolescent. Pediatrics 2003; 112(4):e323. PubMed ID: 14523219. this resource:

71 Zar HJ. Chronic lung disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children. Pediatr Pulmonol 2008; 43(1):1–10. PubMed ID: 18041077. this resource:

72 Thaithumyanon P. Safety and immunogenicity of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine in children born to HIV-1 infected women. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2000; 31(3):482–6. PubMed ID: 11289006. this resource:

73 Rousseau MC. Vaccination and HIV: a review of the literature. Vaccine 1999; 18(9–10):825–31. PubMed ID: 10580195.

74 Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS Treatment Guideline 2016 update: antiretroviral therapy recommended for all children living with HIV

75 Family HIV Clinic, Hospital for Sick Children, Gt Ormond Street, London WC1N 3JH; 020 7813 8231.Find this resource:

76 Canani RB et al. Zinc fights diarrhoea in HIV-1–infected children: in-vitro evidence to link clinical data and pathophysiological mechanism. AIDS 2007; 21(1):108–10. this resource:

77 Zar HJ. Chronic lung disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children. Pediatr Pulmonol 2008; 43(1):1–10. PubMed ID: 18041077. this resource:

78 Cherry J. Croup. NEJM 2008; 358:384–91. PubMed ID: 18216359.

79 Bjornson C et al. Nebulized epinephrine for croup. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 2:CD006619. PubMed ID: 21328284.

80 Sing A et al. Detection of differences in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of diphtheria toxin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans causing extrapharyngeal infections. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41(10):4848–51. PubMed ID: 14532240. this resource:

81 Westley CR et al. Nebulized racemic epinephrine by IPPB for the treatment of croup: a double-blind study. Am J Dis Child 1978; 132(5):484–7. PubMed ID: 347921. this resource:

82 NICE. Bronchiolitis in children: diagnosis and management (NG9). NICE; 2015.

83 British Thoracic Society Community Acquired Pneumonia in Children Guideline Group. Guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in children: update 2011. Thorax 2011; 66(Suppl 2): ii2–23. PubMed ID: 21903691.

84 Bradley et al. The management of community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children older than 3 months of age: clinical practice guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53(7):e25–76. PubMed ID: 21880587 this resource:

85 Fu LY et al. Brief hospitalization and pulse oximetry for predicting amoxicillin treatment failure in children with severe pneumonia. Pediatrics 2006; 118(6):e1822–30. PubMed ID: 17142503. this resource:

86 Chapter 3: management of TB in the HIV-infected child. Stop TB Partnership Childhood TB Subgroup, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2006; 10(12):1331–6. PubMed ID: 17167948. this resource:

87 Wood N et al. Pertussis: review of epidemiology, diagnosis, management and prevention. Paediatr Respir Rev 2008; 9(3):201–11 PubMed ID: 18694712. this resource:

88 Crowcroft NS et al. Severe and unrecognised: pertussis in UK infants. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88:802–6. PubMed ID: 12937105.

89 Regamey N et al. Viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections with cough in infancy: a community-based birth cohort study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2008; 27(2):100–5. PubMed ID: 18174876. this resource:

90 Cochran D. Diagnosing and treating chesty infants. A short trial of inhaled corticosteroid is probably the best approach. BMJ 1998; 316(7144):1546–7. this resource:

91 Vitamins & intestinal cancer. 2004.

92 Cochrane Library. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings

93 BTS/ SIGN 153. British guideline on the management of asthma

94 NICE. Asthma: diagnosis, monitoring and chronic asthma management (NG80). NICE; 2017.

95 Bacharier LB et al. Diagnosis and treatment of asthma in childhood: a PRACTALL consensus report. Allergy 2008; 63(1):5–34. PubMed ID: 18053013. this resource:

96 Salam MT et al. Recent evidence for adverse effects of residential proximity to traffic sources on asthma. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2008; 14(1):3–8. PubMed ID: 18043269. this resource:

97 Beasley R et al. Association between paracetamol use in infancy and childhood, and risk of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in children aged 6–7 years: analysis from phase three of the ISAAC programme. Lancet 2008; 372:1039–48.

98 Kurokawa La Scala CS et al. Childhood tuberculosis diagnosed and managed as asthma: case report. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2006; 34(6):276–9. PubMed ID: 17173845. this resource:

99 Derom E et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of inhaled beclometasone dipropionate delivered via hydrofluoroalkane-containing devices. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44(8):815–36. PubMed ID: 16029067. this resource:

100 BNF for Children. 2008.

101 Bisgaard H et al. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance plus reliever therapy: a new strategy in pediatric asthma. Chest 2006; 130(6):1733–43. PubMed ID: 17166990. this resource:

102 NHS Screening Programmes. A Laboratory Guide to Newborn Screening in the UK for Cystic Fibrosis. 2014.

103 Baumer JH. Evidence based guidelines for the performance of the sweat test for the investigation of cystic fibrosis in the UK. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88:1126–7. PubMed ID: 14670787.

104 Mishra A et al. The relevance of sweat testing for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in the genomic era. Clin Biochem Rev 2005; 26(4):135–53. PubMed ID: 16648884. this resource:

105 Proesmans M et al. Omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, improves residual steatorrhoea in cystic fibrosis patients treated with high dose pancreatic enzymes. Eur J Pediatr 2003; 162(11):760–3. PubMed ID: 13680386. this resource:

106 Garagorri JM. Early detection of impaired glucose tolerance in patients with cystic fibrosis and predisposition factors. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2001; 14(1):53–60. PubMed ID: 11220706. this resource:

107 UK CF Register Annual Report 2017.

108 Liou TG. Predictive 5–year survivorship model of cystic fibrosis. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 153(4):345–52. this resource:

109 Repeated nebulisation of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial. PubMed ID: 26149841.

110 Polito C et al. Central/diffuse abdominal perception of urological pain in children. Acta Paediatr 2006; 95(1):82–5. PubMed ID: 16373302. this resource:

111 Schilling FH. Neuroblastoma screening at one year of age. NEJM 2002; 346(14):1047–53. PubMed ID: 11932471. this resource:

112 Hiyama E et al. Effectiveness of screening for neuroblastoma. Lancet 2008; 371:1173. PubMed ID: 18395578.

113 Rostom A et al. American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Institute technical review on the diagnosis and management of celiac disease. Gastroenterology 2006; 131(6):1981–2002 PubMed ID: 17087937. this resource:

114 Steele R. Diagnosis and management of coeliac disease in children. Postgrad Med J 2011; 87(1023):19–25. PubMed ID: 21131614. this resource:

115 NICE. Coeliac disease (NG20). NICE; 2015.

116 Rashid M et al. Consumption of pure oats by individuals with celiac disease: a position statement by the Canadian Celiac Association. Can J Gastroenterol 2007; 21(10):649–51. PubMed ID: 17948135. this resource:

117 WHO. Diarrhoeal disease. Fact sheet. May 2017.

118 Dennehy P. Rotavirus vaccines: an overview. Clin Microbiol Rev 2008; 21(1):198–208. PubMed ID: 18202442. this resource:

119 NICE. Diarrhoea and vomiting in children (CG84). NICE; 2009.

120 Freedman SB et al. Effect of dilute apple juice and preferred fluids vs electrolyte maintenance solution on treatment failure among children with mild gastroenteritis. JAMA 2016; 315(18):1966–74. PubMed ID: 27131100. this resource:

121 Chew F. Is dilution of cows’ milk formula necessary for dietary management of acute diarrhoea in infants aged less than 6 months? Lancet 1993; 341(8839):194–7. PubMed ID: 8093495. this resource:

122 Dalby-Payne JR et al. Gastroenteritis in children. Clin Evid (Online) 2009; 2009. pii: 0314. PubMed ID: 21726481.

123 Fedorowicz et al. Antiemetics for reducing vomiting related to acute gastroenteritis in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 9:CD005506. PubMed ID: 21901699.

124 Freedman et al. Oral ondansetron administration in emergency departments to children with gastroenteritis: an economic analysis. PLoS Med 2010; 7(10). pii: e1000350. PubMed ID: 20967234. this resource:

125 WHO. Malnutrition key facts. 18 February 2018

126 Ruel M. Age-based preventive targetting of food assistance. Lancet 2008; 371:588–95. PubMed ID: 18280329. this resource:

127 Black R. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures. Lancet 2008; 371:243. PubMed ID: 18207566.

128 Tielsch JM et al. Effect of daily zinc supplementation on child mortality in southern Nepal: a community-based, cluster randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2007; 370(9594):1230–9. PubMed ID: 17920918. this resource:

129 Black R. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures. Lancet 2008; 371:243.

130 Acheson J et al. Management of suspected appendicitis in children. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract 2010;95:9–13.

131 Baird DLH et al. Acute appendicitis. BMJ 2017; 357:j1703.

132 Hall NJ et al. Non-operative management of appendicitis in children. Arch Dis Child 2018; 103:498–502.

133 Justice et al. Recurrent intussusception in infants. J Paediatr Child Health 2011; 47(11):802–5. PubMed ID: 21435072. this resource:

134 Wang MH et al. [Analysis of shape and retractability of the prepuce in 1,015 Chinese boys aged from 0 to 18 years old] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2006; 12(3):249–50. PubMed ID: 16597045. this resource:

135 Monsour MA. Medical management of phimosis in children: our experience with topical steroids. J Urol 1999; 162(3 Pt 2):1162–4. PubMed ID: 10458456.

136 Kessmann, J. Hirschsprung’s disease: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician 2006; 74(8):1319–22. PubMed ID: 17087425. this resource:

137 De Lorijn F et al. Diagnosis of Hirschsprung’s disease: a prospective, comparative accuracy study of common tests. J Pediatr 2005; 146(6):787–92. Pub Med ID: 15973319. this resource:

138 Goyal A et al. Oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2006; 91(5):F381–4. PubMed ID: 16923940. this resource:

139 Holland AJA et al. Oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula: current management strategises and complications. Paediatr Respir Rev 2010; 11(2):100–6. Pub Med ID: 20416546 this resource:

140 Khawahur H et al. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a local experience. Ann Saudi Med 1999; 19(6):501–4. PubMed ID: 17277467. this resource:

141 Stoll C et al. Associated malformations in cases with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Genet Couns 2008; 19(3):331–9. this resource:

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143 Takehara H et al. Laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure for inguinal hernia in children: clinical outcome of 972 repairs done in 3 pediatric surgical institutions. J Pediatr Surg 2006; 41(12):1999–2003. PubMed ID: 17161191. this resource:

144 Lau et al. Current management of hernias and hydroceles. Semin Pediatr Surg 2007; 16(1):50–7. PubMed ID: 17210483. this resource:

145 Chen CC. Anorectal function and endopelvic dissection in patients with repaired imperforate anus. Pediatr Surg Int 1998; 13(2–3):133–7.

146 Kimura K. Bilious vomiting in the newborn: rapid diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. Am Fam Physician 2000; 61(9):2791–8. this resource:

147 Chambers CD et al. Novel risk factor in gastroschisis: change of paternity. Am J Med Genet A 2007; 143A(7):653–9. PubMed ID: 17163540.

148 Poddar R et al. Exomphalos and gastroschisis. Cont Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain 2009; 9(2):48–51. this resource:

149 Lee SL et al. Initial nonoperative management and delayed closure for treatment of giant omphaloceles. J Pediatr Surg 2006; 41(11):1846–9. PubMed ID: 17101356. this resource:

150 Morabito A et al. Traction-compression-closure for exomphalos major. J Pediatr Surg 2006; 41(11):1850–3. PubMed ID: 17101357. this resource:

151 NICE. Urinary tract infection in under 16s: diagnosis and management (CG54). NICE; 2007, updated 2018.

152 Prelog M et al. Febrile urinary tract infection in children: ampicillin and trimethoprim insufficient as empirical mono-therapy. Pediatr Nephrol 2008; 23(4):597–602. PubMed ID: 18193296. this resource:

153 Smellie JM et al. Medical versus surgical treatment in children with severe bilateral vesicoureteric reflux and bilateral nephropathy: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001; 357(9265):1329–33. this resource:

154 Hodson EM. Corticosteroid therapy for nephrotic syndrome in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 2:CD001533.

155 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Glomerulonephritis.

156 Zolotas E et al. Treatment of the first episode of childhood idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. G489(P). Arch Dis Child 2015;100(Suppl 3):A1–A288.

157 Cochrane Library. Corticosteroid therapy for nephrotic syndrome in children (Review).

158 Larkins N et al. Steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome: an evidence-based update of immunosuppressive treatment in children. Arch Dis Child 2016; 101(4):404–8. this resource:

159 Strauss S. Sonographic features of horseshoe kidney: review of 34 patients. J Ultrasound Med 2000; 19(1):27–31. this resource:

160 Sween WE et al. Diagnosis and management of childhood polycystic kidney disease. Paediatr Nephrol 2011; 26(5):675–92. PubMed ID: 21046169. this resource:

161 Aydin HI. Thoracic ectopic kidney in a child: a case report. Turk J Pediatr 2000; 42(3):253–5. this resource:

162 Tongsong T. Prenatal diagnosis of VACTERL association: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai 2001; 84(1):143–8. this resource:

163 Sponseller PD. Anterior innominate osteotomy in repair of bladder exstrophy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001; 83A(2):184–93.

164 Grosfeld JL. Risk-based management of solid tumors in children. Am J Surg 2000; 180(5):322–7. this resource:

165 Ko EY et al. Current management of Wilms’ tumor in children. Pediatr Urol 2009; 5(1):56–65. PubMed ID: 18845484 this resource:

166 Skuse GR. Tumour suppressor genes in disease and therapy. Lancet 1995; 345(8954):902–6. this resource:

167 Brisse HJ et al. Imaging in unilateral Wilms tumour. Pediatr Radiol 2008; 38(1): 18–29. PubMed ID: 18038168. this resource:

168 Varan A. Wilms’ tumor in children: an overview. Nephron Clin Pract 2008; 108(2): c83–c90. PubMed ID: 18187945. this resource:

169 Grosfeld JL. Risk-based management of solid tumors in children. Am J Surg 2000; 180(5):322–7. this resource:

170 Tournade MF. Optimal duration of preoperative therapy in unilateral and nonmetastatic Wilms’ tumor in children older than 6 months: results of the Ninth International Society of Pediatric Oncology Wilms’ Tumor. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19(2):488–500. this resource:

171 Kaste SC et al. Wilms tumour: prognostic factors, staging, therapy and late effects. Pediatr Radiol 2008; 38(1):2–17. PubMed ID: 18026723. this resource:

172 Andreolli, SP. Acute kidney injury in children. Pediatr Nephrol 2009; 24(2):253–63 PubMed ID: 19083019. this resource:

173 Bunchman T et al. Treatment of acute kidney injury in children: from conservative management to renal replacement therapy. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol 2008; 4(9):510–4. PubMed ID: 18728634. this resource:

174 Chugh KS et al. Acute renal failure amongst children in a tropical environment. Int J Artif Organs 1987; 10(2):97–101. PubMed ID: 3583435. this resource:

175 Arcan-Ariken A et al. Modified RIFLE criteria in critically ill children with acute kidney injury. Kidney Int 2007; 71(10):1028–35. Pub Med ID: 17396113. this resource:

176 Metha RL et al/ AKIN: Acute Kidney Injury Network: report of an initiative to improve outcomes in acute kidney injury. Crit Care. 2007; 11(2):R31.Find this resource:

177 KDIGO: Acute Kidney Injury Work Group. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) - Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury. Kidney Inter 2012; 2:1–138.Find this resource:

178 NICE. Acute kidney injury: prevention, detection and management (CG169). NICE; 2013.

179 Taylor CM et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome in the United Kingdom. Br J Haematol 2010; 148(1):37–47. PubMed ID: 19821824. this resource:

180 Amirlak I et al. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome: an overview. Nephrology 2006; 11:213–8. PubMed ID: 16756634.

181 Iijima K et al. Management of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome in children. Clin Exp Nephrol 2008; 12(1):16–9. PubMed ID: 18175052. this resource:

182 Abid F et al. Cranial nerve palsies in renal osteodystrophy. Pediatr Neurol 2007; 36(1):64–5. PubMed ID: 17162202. this resource:

183 KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease.

184 Patel NH et al. Evaluation and management of pediatric hypertensive crises: hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies. Open Access Emerg Med 2012; 4:85–92.

185 NICE. Epilepsies: diagnosis and management (CG 137). NICE; 2012, updated 2018.

186 ILAE classification of the epilepsies: Position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology.

187 Cirignotta F. Temporal lobe epilepsy with ecstatic seizures (so-called Dostoevsky epilepsy). Epilepsia 1980; 21(6):705–10. this resource:

188 Naito H. Temporal lobe epilepsy with ictal ecstatic state and interictal behavior of hypergraphia. J Nerv Ment Dis 1988; 176(2):123–4. this resource:

189 Fenton TH. A self-fulfilling prophesy? Arch Dis Child 2003; 88(2):178. this resource:

190 Karande S. Febrile seizures: a review for family physicians. Indian J Med Sci 2007; 61(3):161–72. PubMed ID: 17337819. this resource:

191 Waruiru C et al. Febrile seizures: an update. Arch Dis Child 2004; 89:751–6.

192 Patel N. Febrile Seizures. BMJ 2015;351:h4240.

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