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date: 06 August 2021

Chapter 3: Paediatrics

1 Biarent D et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010: Section 6. Paediatric life support. Resuscitation 2010; 81(10):1364–88. PubMed ID: 20956047. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20956047Find this resource:

2 Kleinman ME et al. Part 14: Pediatric Advanced Life Support. 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2010; 122(suppl 3): S876–S908 PubMed ID: 20956230. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20956230

3 Biarent D et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010: Section 6. Paediatric life support. Resuscitation 2010; 81(10):1364–88. PubMed ID: 20956047. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20956047Find this resource:

4 Weiser G et al. Current advances in intraosseous infusion - a systematic review. Resuscitation 2012; 83(1):20–6. PubMed ID: 21871243. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21871243Find this resource:

5 Clinical Education Resources Arrow® EZ-IO® Intraosseous Vascular Access System. https://www.teleflex.com/usa/clinical-resources/ez-io/index?language_id=11

6 Lavis M. Adult intraosseous infusion in accident and emergency departments in the UK. J Accid Emerg Med 2000; 17(1):29–32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10658988Find this resource:

7 NICE. Anaphylaxis Assessment to confirm an anaphylactic episode and the decision to refer after emergency treatment for a suspected anaphylactic episode (CG134). NICE; 2011. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg134/evidence/anaphylaxis-full-guideline-pdf-184946941

8 Resuscitation Council (UK). Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions: guidelines for healthcare providers. Working Group of the Resuscitation Council (UK); January 2008. https://www.resus.org.uk/EasySiteWeb/GatewayLink.aspx?alId=824

9 Resuscitation Council (UK). Anaphylaxis. Resuscitation Council (UK); 2005. http://www.resus.org.uk/pages/reaction.htm

10 Resuscitation Council (UK). Resuscitation and support of transition of babies at birth. https://www.resus.org.uk/resuscitation-guidelines/resuscitation-and-support-of-transition-of-babies-at-birth/

11 Bohadana A et al. Fundamentals of lung auscultation. NEJM 2014; 370:744–51. PubMed ID: 24552321. https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMra1302901

12 NICE. Fever in under 5s: assessment and initial management (CG160). NICE; 2013. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg160

13 Advanced Life Support Group (ALSG). Advanced Paediatric Life Support: The Practical Approach (5th ed). Manchetser: ALSG; 2011.Find this resource:

14 NICE. Meningitis (bacterial) and meningococcal septicaemia in under 16s: recognition, diagnosis and management (CG102). NICE; 2010, updated 2015. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg102

15 NICE. When to suspect child maltreatment (CG89). NICE; 2009, updated 2017. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG89

16 Bull L. Children’s non-accidental injuries at an accident and emergency department: Does the age of the child and the type of injury matter? Accid Emerg Nurs 2006; 14(3):155–9. PubMed ID: 16934686. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16934686&from=cqsrFind this resource:

17 Fong CM et al. Fractures associated with non-accidental injury--an orthopaedic perspective in a local regional hospital. Hong Kong Med J 2005; 11(6):445–51. PubMed ID: 16340020. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16340020&from=cqsrFind this resource:

18 Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Child Protection Evidence Systematic review on Bruising. July 2017 https://www.rcpch.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2018-07/child_protection_evidence_-_bruising.pdf

19 Child Protection Companion. Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. http://pcouk.org/book.aspx?bookid=1674

20 Talbot JC et al. Osteoporotic femoral fracture in a child with propionic acidaemia presenting as non-accidental injury. Eur J Pediatr 2006; 165(7):496–7. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16642366&from=cqsrFind this resource:

21 Harker E et al. Propionic acidemia in a four-month-old male: a case study and anesthetic implications. Anesth Analg 2000; 91(2):309–11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10910839Find this resource:

22 NICE. Child maltreatment: when to suspect maltreatment in under 18s (CG89). NICE; 2009, updated 2017. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg89

23 Roelofs K et al. Childhood abuse in patients with conversion disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159(11):1908–13. PubMed ID: 12411227. https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.ajp.159.11.1908Find this resource:

24 Loh WF. Neurological manifestations of children with systemic lupus erythematosus. Med J Malaysia 2000; 55(4):459–63. PubMed ID: 11221157. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11221157Find this resource:

25 The Encephalitis Society. Management of Suspected Viral Encephalitis in Children.  https://www.encephalitis.info/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=3e8b4c00-d236-4c80-b0e7-26ce38bd957f

26 Chávez-Bueno S et al. Bacterial meningitis in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 2005; 52(3):795–810, vii. PubMed ID: 15925663. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15925663Find this resource:

27 Al-Abbasi AM. Tuberculous meningoencephalitis in Baghdad, 1993–99: a clinical study of 224 cases. Eastern Mediterranean Health J 2002; March. http://www.emro.who.int/Publications/EMHJ/0802_3/tuberclusis.htm

28 Lang AM. Clinical evaluation of the Gen-Probe amplified direct test for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol 1998, 36:2191–4. PubMed ID: 9665989. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9665989

29 Glasgow Coma Scale modification for Children: http://www.glasgowcomascale.org/faq/

30 British Peadiatric Neurology Association. Child's Glasgow Coma Scale (Revised BPNA 2001). https://www.bpna.org.uk/audit/GCS.PDF

31 Taylor T. Caring for children with cerebral malaria: insights gleaned from 20 years on a research ward in Malawi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Apr;103 Suppl 1:S6-10. PubMed ID: 19128813. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19128813

32 Upadhyay et al. Role of hypertonic saline and mannitol in the management of raised intracranial pressure in children: a randomized comparative study. J Pediatr Neurosci 2010; 5(1):18–21. PubMed ID: 21042500. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21042500Find this resource:

33 Meningitis Research Foundation. Recognition and early management of meningococcal disease in children and young people. Edition 3A. https://www.meningitis.org/getmedia/b94b2a06-7566-4928-b3af-d3a5cee2fa4a/junior-doctor-handbook-online-version

34 Duncan A. New therapies for severe meningococcal disease but better outcomes? Lancet 1997; 350(9091):1565–6. PubMed ID: 9393331. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9393331Find this resource:

35 Green Book: Chapter 22: Meningococcal September 2016 https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/554011/Green_Book_Chapter_22.pdf

36 Booy R. Prevention of meningococcal disease. NEJM 2007; 356:524. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc063032

37 American Academy of Pediatrics. Meningococcal infections. In: Red Book. American Academy of Pediatrics. https://redbook.solutions.aap.org/

38 Molyneux EM et al. The effect of HIV infection on paediatric bacterial meningitis in Blantyre, Malawi. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88(12):1112–18. PubMed ID: 14670782. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=14670782&from=cqsrFind this resource:

39 Yogev R et al. Bacterial meningitis in children: critical review of current concepts. Drugs 2005; 65(8):1097–112. PubMed ID: 15907145. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=15907145&from=cqsrFind this resource:

40 Rivero GA et al. Listeria monocytogenes infection in patients with cancer. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2003; 47(2):393–8. PubMed ID: 14522512. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=14522512&from=cqsrFind this resource:

41 Thwaites G. Tuberculous meningitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000; 68(3):289–99. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10675209Find this resource:

42 Thwaites G. et al. British Infection Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis of the central nervous system in adults and children. J Infect 2009; 59(3):167–87. PubMed ID: 19643501. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19643501Find this resource:

43 Thwaites GE. Dexamethasone for the treatment of tuberculous meningitis in adolescents and adults. NEJM 2004; 351:1741–51. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/351/17/1741?query=TOC

44 Skrede S. Treatment of acute bacterial meningitis. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2001; 121(28):3306–9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11826463Find this resource:

45 Richardson M et al. Evidence base of incubation periods, periods of infectiousness and exclusion policies for the control of communicable diseases in schools and preschools. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001;20(4):380–91. PubMed ID: 11332662. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11332662Find this resource:

46 Shann F et al. Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000; 3:CD001477. https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001477/full

47 Dos Santos BA et al. Prevalence of antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella before and after vaccination of school-age children with three different triple combined viral vaccines, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1996. Rev Panam Salud Publica 2006; 20(5):299–306. PubMed ID: 17316487. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17316487&from=cqsrFind this resource:

48 Grais RF et al. Unacceptably high mortality related to measles epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad. PLoS Med 2007; 4(1):e16. PubMed ID: 17199407. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17199407&from=cqsrFind this resource:

49 Plotkin SA. Rubella eradication. Vaccine 2001; 19(25–26):3311–19. PubMed ID: 11348695. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11348695

50 Servey JT et al. Clinical presentations of parvovirus B19 infection. Am Fam Physician 2007; 75(3):373–6. PubMed ID: 17304869. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17304869&from=cqsrFind this resource:

51 Sanghi A. Zoonotic and viral infection in fetal loss after 12 weeks. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104(8):942–5. PubMed ID: 9255087. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9255087Find this resource:

52 Ornoy A et al. Parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy and risks to the fetus. Birth Defects Res. 2017; 109(5):311–23. PubMed ID: 28398685. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28398685Find this resource:

53 Chua KB. The predictive value of uvulo-palatoglossal junctional ulcers as an early clinical sign of exanthem subitum due to human herpesvirus 6. J Clin Virol 2000; 17(2):83–90. PubMed ID: 10942088. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10942088Find this resource:

54 Yoshikawa T. Central nervous system complications in human herpesvirus-6 infection. Brain Dev 2000; 22(5):307–14. PubMed ID: 10891638. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10891638Find this resource:

55 Meremikwu M et al. Physical methods for treating fever in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 2:CD004264. PubMed ID: 12804512. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=12804512&from=cqsr

56 Meremikwu M et al. Paracetamol for treating fever in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; 2:CD003676. PubMed ID: 12076499. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=12076499&from=cqsr

57 Farlow A. Childhood immunisation against varicella zoster virus. BMJ 2008; 337:a1164 PubMed ID: 18713808. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18713808

58 van Hoek AJ et al. The cost effectiveness of varicella and combined varicella and herpes zoster vaccination programmes in the United Kingdom. Vaccine 2012; 30(6):1225–34. PubMed ID: 22119592. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22119592Find this resource:

59 Papadopoulos AJ. Chickenpox. Medscape, 2015. http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic74.htm

60 Sauerbrei A. The congenital varicella syndrome. J Perinatol 2000; 20(8 Pt 1):548–54. PubMed ID: 11190597. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11190597

61 Seidman DS. Varicella vaccine in pregnancy. BMJ 1996; 313(7059):701–2. PubMed ID: 8819427. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8819427Find this resource:

62 Green Book: Chapter 34: Varicella V3_0 https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/456562/Green_Book_Chapter_34_v3_0.pdf

63 RCOG. Chicken pox in pregnancy (Green-top Guideline No. 13). RCOG; 2015. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg13.pdf

64 Bruel H et al. [Two cases of congenital varicella syndrome: plea for the varicella vaccine.] Arch Pediatr 2004; 11(3):216–8. PubMed ID: 14992768. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=14992768&from=cqsrFind this resource:

65 Venkatesan P. Chickenpox in pregnancy: how dangerous? Practitioner 1996; 240(1561):256–9. PubMed ID: 8762292. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8762292Find this resource:

66 Coutsoudis A. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in the face of the HIV pandemic. Lancet 2000; 356(9242):1620–1. PubMed ID: 11089813. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11089813Find this resource:

67 Coovadia H et al. Breastfeeding to prevent HIV transmission in infants: balancing pros and cons. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2008; 21(1):11–5. PubMed ID: 18192780. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18192780&from=cqsrFind this resource:

68 British HIV Association. Guidelines for the management of HIV infection in pregnant women 2012 (2014 interim review). https://www.bhiva.org/file/FCUcXrfVgWsYl/BHIVA-Pregnancy-guidelines-update-2014.pdf

69 Sharland M et al. Advances in the prevention and treatment of paediatric HIV infection in the United Kingdom. Arch Dis Child 2002; 87:178–80. PubMed ID: 12193420. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1719244/

70 Aggarwal M et al. Acute human immunodeficiency virus syndrome in an adolescent. Pediatrics 2003; 112(4):e323. PubMed ID: 14523219. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=14523219&from=cqsrFind this resource:

71 Zar HJ. Chronic lung disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children. Pediatr Pulmonol 2008; 43(1):1–10. PubMed ID: 18041077. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18041077&from=cqsrFind this resource:

72 Thaithumyanon P. Safety and immunogenicity of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine in children born to HIV-1 infected women. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2000; 31(3):482–6. PubMed ID: 11289006. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11289006Find this resource:

73 Rousseau MC. Vaccination and HIV: a review of the literature. Vaccine 1999; 18(9–10):825–31. PubMed ID: 10580195. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10580195

74 Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS Treatment Guideline 2016 update: antiretroviral therapy recommended for all children living with HIV https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/hiv.12399

75 Family HIV Clinic, Hospital for Sick Children, Gt Ormond Street, London WC1N 3JH; 020 7813 8231.Find this resource:

76 Canani RB et al. Zinc fights diarrhoea in HIV-1–infected children: in-vitro evidence to link clinical data and pathophysiological mechanism. AIDS 2007; 21(1):108–10. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17148977&from=cqsrFind this resource:

77 Zar HJ. Chronic lung disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children. Pediatr Pulmonol 2008; 43(1):1–10. PubMed ID: 18041077. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18041077&from=cqsrFind this resource:

78 Cherry J. Croup. NEJM 2008; 358:384–91. PubMed ID: 18216359. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18216359

79 Bjornson C et al. Nebulized epinephrine for croup. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 2:CD006619. PubMed ID: 21328284. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21328284

80 Sing A et al. Detection of differences in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of diphtheria toxin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans causing extrapharyngeal infections. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41(10):4848–51. PubMed ID: 14532240. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=14532240&from=cqsrFind this resource:

81 Westley CR et al. Nebulized racemic epinephrine by IPPB for the treatment of croup: a double-blind study. Am J Dis Child 1978; 132(5):484–7. PubMed ID: 347921. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/347921Find this resource:

82 NICE. Bronchiolitis in children: diagnosis and management (NG9). NICE; 2015. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng9/resources/bronchiolitis-in-children-diagnosis-and-management-pdf-51048523717

83 British Thoracic Society Community Acquired Pneumonia in Children Guideline Group. Guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in children: update 2011. Thorax 2011; 66(Suppl 2): ii2–23. PubMed ID: 21903691. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903691

84 Bradley et al. The management of community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children older than 3 months of age: clinical practice guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53(7):e25–76. PubMed ID: 21880587 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21880587Find this resource:

85 Fu LY et al. Brief hospitalization and pulse oximetry for predicting amoxicillin treatment failure in children with severe pneumonia. Pediatrics 2006; 118(6):e1822–30. PubMed ID: 17142503. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17142503&from=cqsrFind this resource:

86 Chapter 3: management of TB in the HIV-infected child. Stop TB Partnership Childhood TB Subgroup, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2006; 10(12):1331–6. PubMed ID: 17167948. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17167948&from=cqsrFind this resource:

87 Wood N et al. Pertussis: review of epidemiology, diagnosis, management and prevention. Paediatr Respir Rev 2008; 9(3):201–11 PubMed ID: 18694712. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18694712Find this resource:

88 Crowcroft NS et al. Severe and unrecognised: pertussis in UK infants. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88:802–6. PubMed ID: 12937105. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12937105

89 Regamey N et al. Viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections with cough in infancy: a community-based birth cohort study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2008; 27(2):100–5. PubMed ID: 18174876. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18174876&from=cqsrFind this resource:

90 Cochran D. Diagnosing and treating chesty infants. A short trial of inhaled corticosteroid is probably the best approach. BMJ 1998; 316(7144):1546–7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9Find this resource:

91 MedicineNet.com. Vitamins & intestinal cancer. 2004. http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=39491

92 Cochrane Library. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings https://www.cochrane.org/CD001831/ARI_over-the-counter-otc-medications-for-acute-cough-in-children-and-adults-in-community-settings

93 BTS/ SIGN 153. British guideline on the management of asthma https://www.brit-thoracic.org.uk/document-library/clinical-information/asthma/btssign-asthma-guideline-2016/

94 NICE. Asthma: diagnosis, monitoring and chronic asthma management (NG80). NICE; 2017. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng80/resources/asthma-diagnosis-monitoring-and-chronic-asthma-management-pdf-1837687975621

95 Bacharier LB et al. Diagnosis and treatment of asthma in childhood: a PRACTALL consensus report. Allergy 2008; 63(1):5–34. PubMed ID: 18053013. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18053013&from=cqsrFind this resource:

96 Salam MT et al. Recent evidence for adverse effects of residential proximity to traffic sources on asthma. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2008; 14(1):3–8. PubMed ID: 18043269. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18043269&from=cqsrFind this resource:

97 Beasley R et al. Association between paracetamol use in infancy and childhood, and risk of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in children aged 6–7 years: analysis from phase three of the ISAAC programme. Lancet 2008; 372:1039–48. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140673608614452/abstract

98 Kurokawa La Scala CS et al. Childhood tuberculosis diagnosed and managed as asthma: case report. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2006; 34(6):276–9. PubMed ID: 17173845. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17173845&from=cqsrFind this resource:

99 Derom E et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of inhaled beclometasone dipropionate delivered via hydrofluoroalkane-containing devices. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44(8):815–36. PubMed ID: 16029067. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16029067&from=cqsrFind this resource:

100 BNF for Children. 2008. http://bnfc.org/bnfc/bnfc/current/119630.htm#footnote128147

101 Bisgaard H et al. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance plus reliever therapy: a new strategy in pediatric asthma. Chest 2006; 130(6):1733–43. PubMed ID: 17166990. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17166990&from=cqsrFind this resource:

102 NHS Screening Programmes. A Laboratory Guide to Newborn Screening in the UK for Cystic Fibrosis. 2014. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/397726/Cystic_Fibrosis_Lab_Guide_February_2014_v1.0_12_.pdf

103 Baumer JH. Evidence based guidelines for the performance of the sweat test for the investigation of cystic fibrosis in the UK. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88:1126–7. PubMed ID: 14670787. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1719395/

104 Mishra A et al. The relevance of sweat testing for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in the genomic era. Clin Biochem Rev 2005; 26(4):135–53. PubMed ID: 16648884. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/V2cqsr.cgiFind this resource:

105 Proesmans M et al. Omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, improves residual steatorrhoea in cystic fibrosis patients treated with high dose pancreatic enzymes. Eur J Pediatr 2003; 162(11):760–3. PubMed ID: 13680386. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=13680386&from=cqsrFind this resource:

106 Garagorri JM. Early detection of impaired glucose tolerance in patients with cystic fibrosis and predisposition factors. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2001; 14(1):53–60. PubMed ID: 11220706. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11220706Find this resource:

107 UK CF Register Annual Report 2017. https://www.cysticfibrosis.org.uk/the-work-we-do/uk-cf-registry/reporting-and-resources

108 Liou TG. Predictive 5–year survivorship model of cystic fibrosis. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 153(4):345–52. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11207152Find this resource:

109 Repeated nebulisation of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial. PubMed ID: 26149841. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26149841

110 Polito C et al. Central/diffuse abdominal perception of urological pain in children. Acta Paediatr 2006; 95(1):82–5. PubMed ID: 16373302. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16373302&from=cqsrFind this resource:

111 Schilling FH. Neuroblastoma screening at one year of age. NEJM 2002; 346(14):1047–53. PubMed ID: 11932471. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11932471Find this resource:

112 Hiyama E et al. Effectiveness of screening for neuroblastoma. Lancet 2008; 371:1173. PubMed ID: 18395578. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18395578

113 Rostom A et al. American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Institute technical review on the diagnosis and management of celiac disease. Gastroenterology 2006; 131(6):1981–2002 PubMed ID: 17087937. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17087937Find this resource:

114 Steele R. Diagnosis and management of coeliac disease in children. Postgrad Med J 2011; 87(1023):19–25. PubMed ID: 21131614. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21131614Find this resource:

115 NICE. Coeliac disease (NG20). NICE; 2015. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng20/resources/coeliac-disease-recognition-assessment-and-management-pdf-1837325178565

116 Rashid M et al. Consumption of pure oats by individuals with celiac disease: a position statement by the Canadian Celiac Association. Can J Gastroenterol 2007; 21(10):649–51. PubMed ID: 17948135. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17948135&from=cqsrFind this resource:

117 WHO. Diarrhoeal disease. Fact sheet. May 2017. http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diarrhoeal-disease

118 Dennehy P. Rotavirus vaccines: an overview. Clin Microbiol Rev 2008; 21(1):198–208. PubMed ID: 18202442. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18202442Find this resource:

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385 NICE. Jaundice in newborn babies under 28 days (CG98). NICE; 2016. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg98/resources/jaundice-in-newborn-babies-under-28-days-pdf-975756073669

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389 Harris MC. Developmental follow-up of breastfed term and near-term infants with marked hyperbilirubinemia. Pediatrics 2001; 107(5):1075–80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11331689Find this resource:

390 Hanko E. Spectrum of outcome in infants with extreme neonatal jaundice. Acta Paediatr 2001; 90(7):782–5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11519982Find this resource:

391 Hansen TW. Acute management of extreme neonatal jaundice – the potential benefits of intensified phototherapy and interruption of enterohepatic bilirubin circulation. Acta Paediatr 1997; 86(8):843–6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9307164Find this resource:

392 Tan KL. Phototherapy for neonatal jaundice. Acta Paediatr 1996; 85(3):277–9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8695979Find this resource:

393 Guideline for the Investigation of Neonatal Conjugated Jaundice Liver Steering Group, BSPGHAN, Revised December 2016. https://bspghan.org.uk/sites/default/files/guidelines/2016_guideline_for_the_investigation_of_neonatal_conjugated_jaundice.pdf

394 Mari G. Noninvasive diagnosis by Doppler ultrasonography of fetal anemia due to maternal red-cell alloimmunization. Collaborative Group for Doppler Assessment of the Blood Velocity in Anemic Fetuses. NEJM 2000; 342(1):9–14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10620643Find this resource:

395 Hayde M. Rhesus isoimmunization: increased hemolysis during early infancy. Pediatr Res 1997; 41(5):716–21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9128296Find this resource:

396 Chilcott J et al. The economics of routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis for pregnant women who are rhesus negative. BJOG 2004; 111(9):903–7. PubMed ID: 15327602. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=15327602&from=cqsrFind this resource:

397 Greenough A. Rhesus disease: postnatal management and outcome. Eur J Pediatr 1999; 158(9):689–93. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10485296Find this resource:

398 Haverkamp F. Good prognosis for psychomotor development in survivors with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. BJOG 2000; 107(2):282–4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10688515Find this resource:

399 Feldman PJ. Maternal social support predicts birth weight and fetal growth in human pregnancy. Psychosom Med 2000; 62(5):715–25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11020102Find this resource:

400 Okogbo ME. Low birth weight and its correlates among Nigerian twins. Afr J Med Med Sci 1997; 26(1–2):5–7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10895219

401 Clayton et al. Consensus statement: management of the child born small for gestational age through to adulthood: a consensus statement of the International Societies of Pediatric Endocrinology and the Growth Hormone Research Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92(3):804–10. Pub Med ID: 17200164 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17200164Find this resource:

402 Ballard JL et al. New Ballard Score, expanded to include extremely premature infants. J Pediatr 1991; 119(3):417–23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=1880657Find this resource:

403 Emsley HC. Increased survival and deteriorating developmental outcome in 23 to 25 week old gestation infants, 1990–4 compared with 1984–9. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998; 78(2):F99–104. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9577278Find this resource:

404 Kiss H. Prospective randomised controlled trial of an infection screening programme to reduce the rate of preterm delivery. BMJ 2004; 329(7462):371. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/329/7462/371Find this resource:

405 WHO. World Health Statistics 2018: monitoring for the SDGs. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272596/9789241565585-eng.pdf?ua=1

406 Greenwood AM et al. A prospective survey of the outcome of pregnancy in a rural area of the Gambia. Bull World Health Organ 1987; 65(5):635–43. PubMed ID: 3501343. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=3501343&from=cqsrFind this resource:

407 Stevens B et al. Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 200; 4:CD001069. PubMed ID: 11687091. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=11687091&from=cqsr

408 Mathai S et al. A comparative study of nonpharmacological methods to reduce pain in neonates. Indian Pediatr 2006; 43(12):1070–5. PubMed ID: 17202604. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17202604&from=cqsrFind this resource:

409 Carbajal R. Analgesic effect of breast feeding in term neonates: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2003; 326:13. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/326/7379/13?view=abstract

410 Shah PS et al. Breastfeeding or breast milk for procedural pain in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 3:CD004950. PubMed ID: 16856069. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16856069&from=cqsr

411 Bellieni CV et al. Cry features reflect pain intensity in term newborns: an alarm threshold. Pediatr Res 2004; 55(1):142–6. PubMed ID: 14605260. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=14605260&from=cqsrFind this resource:

412 Deacon S. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in infants. Evid Based Dent 2005; 6(2):43–4. PubMed   ID:  16208390.  http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16208390&from=cqsrFind this resource:

413 Badovinac RL et al. Folic acid-containing supplement consumption during pregnancy and risk for oral clefts: a meta-analysis. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2007; 79(1):8–15. PubMed ID: 17133404. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17133404&from=cqsrFind this resource:

414 Czeizel AE. Dose-dependent effect of folic acid on the prevention of orofacial clefts. Pediatrics 1999; 104:e66. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/104/6/e66

415 Peled M et al. Treatment of osseous cleft palate defects: a preliminary evaluation of novel treatment modalities. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2005; 42(4):344–8. PubMed ID: 16001913. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16001913&from=cqsrFind this resource:

416 Wu YF et al. Social support and life adjustment for teenagers with cleft lip and palate in Taiwan. Chang Gung Med J 2000; 23(3):128–34. PubMed ID: 15641215. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=15641215&from=cqsrFind this resource:

417 Strathearn L. What’s in a smile? Maternal brain responses to infant facial cues. Pediatrics 2008; 122:40–51. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/122/1/40

418 Stamm AC. Nasal septal cross-over flap technique: a choanal atresia micro-endoscopic surgical repair. Am J Rhinol 2001; 15(2):143–8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11345154Find this resource:

419 Mochida GH. Molecular genetics of human microcephaly. Curr Opin Neurol 2001; 14(2):151–6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11262728Find this resource:

420 Society for Endocrinology. UK guidance on the initial evaluation of an infant or an adolescent with a suspected disorder of sex development (revised 2015). https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/cen.12857

421 Suzuki Y. Bilateral cryptorchidism associated with terminal deletion of 10q. Urol Int 1998; 61(3):186–7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9933844Find this resource:

422 Mathur R. Diagnosis and management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: clinical, molecular and prenatal aspects. Natl Med J India 2001; 14(1):26–31. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11242695Find this resource:

423 Hughes IA. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia--a continuum of disorders. Lancet 1998; 352(9130):752–4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9737273Find this resource:

424 Bulun SE. Aromatase deficiency and estrogen resistance: from molecular genetics to clinic. Semin Reprod Med 2000; 18(1):31–9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11305285Find this resource:

425 Senanayake H. Female karyotype (XX) in patients with ambiguous genitalia does not guarantee the absence of intra-abdominal testes. Ceylon Med J 2000; 45(2):69–70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11051704Find this resource:

426 Kolon TF. Prenatal karyotype and ultrasound discordance in intersex conditions. Urology 1999; 54(6):1097. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10754161Find this resource:

427 Cheikhelard A. How accurate is the prenatal diagnosis of abnormal genitalia? J Urol 2000; 164(3 Pt 2):984–7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10958723

428 Krstic ZD. True hermaphroditism: 10 years’ experience. Pediatr Surg Int 2000; 16(8):580–3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11149399Find this resource:

429 Mendonca BB. Male pseudohermaphroditism due to 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency. Diagnosis, psychological evaluation, and management. Medicine (Baltimore) 2000; 79(5):299–309. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11039078Find this resource:

430 Steensberg JN. [Intersex: which gender should be chosen?] Ugeskr Laeger 2001; 163(8):1067–73 (Danish). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11242664Find this resource:

431 Kula K. Sexual differentiation of the human brain. Przegl Lek 2000; 57(1):41–4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10907369Find this resource:

432 De Halleux V et al. Decreasing oxygen saturation in very early preterm newborn infants after transfusion. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88: F163. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1721506/

433 Inositol in preterm infants at risk for or having respiratory distress syndrome https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25927089

434 Sweet DG et al. European consensus guidelines on the management of respiratory distress syndrome - 2016 update. Neonatology 2017; 111:107–25. https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/448985

435 Ainsworth SB. Pumactant and poractant alfa for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in neonates born at 25–29 weeks’ gestation: a randomised trial. Lancet 2000; 355(9213):1387–92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10791521Find this resource:

436 Henderson-Smart DJ. Elective high frequency oscillatory ventilation versus conventional ventilation for acute pulmonary dysfunction in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2:CD000104. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10796129

437 Moriette G. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in the management of respiratory distress syndrome. Biol Neonate 2000; 77 Suppl 1:14–16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10828581

438 Eichenwald E et al. Management and outcomes of very low birthweight. NEJM 2008; 358:1700–11. http://www.nejm.org/

439 Bancalari E. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and surfactant. Biol Neonate 2001; 80 Suppl 1:7–13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11359038

440 Welty SE. Rationale for antioxidant therapy in premature infants to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Nutr Rev 2001; 59(1 Pt 1):10–17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11281247

441 Rutkowska M. [Changes in the clinical picture of bronchopulmonary dysplasia] Med Wieku Rozwoj 2000; 4(2 Suppl 3):43–57. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11328969

442 Gnanaratnem J. Neonatal acute respiratory failure. Curr Opin Pediatr 2000; 12(3):227–32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10836158Find this resource:

443 Winn HN. Neonatal pulmonary hypoplasia and perinatal mortality in patients with midtrimester rupture of amniotic membranes – a critical analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182(6):1638–44. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/queryd.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&dFind this resource:

444 Simmonds A et al. Addressing the ‘New’ NEC: Part I: rediscovering the basics. Indian J Pediatr 2006; 73(11):1011–18. PubMed ID: 17127784. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17127784&from=cqsrFind this resource:

445 Whitelaw A. Core concepts: intraventricular hemorrhage. NeoReviews 2011; 12;e94–e101 http://neoreviews.aappublications.org/content/12/2/e94.full

446 Mercer JS et al. Delayed cord clamping in very preterm infants reduces the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage and late-onset sepsis: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2006; 117(4):1235–42. PubMed ID: 16585320. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=16585320&from=cqsrFind this resource:

447 Gupta SN et al. Intracranial hemorrhage in term newborns: management and outcomes. Pediatr Neurol 2009 (40(1):1–12 PubMEd ID: 19068247 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19068247

448 Knight DB et al. Neonatal shaken baby syndrome – lessons to be learned/Author’s reply. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88(2)F161–2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12598512Find this resource:

449 Callaghan LA et al. Infant to staff ratios and risk of mortality in very low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88(2):F94–7. http://fn.bmj.com/content/88/2/F94.fullFind this resource:

450 Fleck BW. Therapy for retinopathy of prematurity. Lancet 1999; 353(9148):166–7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9923868Find this resource:

451 Askie LM et al. Effects of targeting lower versus higher arterial oxygen saturations on death or disability in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017; 4:CD011190. https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD011190.pub2/full

452 Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health et al. UK retinopathy of prematurity guideline. May 2008. https://www.rcophth.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/2008-SCI-021-Guidelines-Retinopathy-of-Prematurity.pdf

453 Woolley H. Imparting the diagnosis of life threatening illness in children. BMJ 1989; 298(6688):1623–6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2503155Find this resource:

454 NHS breaches right to respect for private life and moral integrity – European Court of Human rights. Judge Pellonpsaa; reported in The Times, March 11, 2004, p. 39. http://www.worldlii.org/eu/cases/ECHR/2004/102.html

455 A few parents want heroic interventions irrespective of the chance of success. If this is not in the baby’s best interests you may need to apply to the Courts to settle the issue. See Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Withholding or withdrawing life sustaining treatment in children: a framework for practice, 2nd ed. 2004. http://www.gmc-uk.org/Witholding.pdf_40818793.pdf

456 Mahmoud, RA et al. Current methods of non-invasive ventilatory support for neonates. Paediatr Resp Rev 12(3):196–205 PubMed ID:21722849 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21722849

457 Greenough A. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 1:CD000456. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11279692

458 Soll R. Patient-triggered ventilation of the newborn. Lancet 2000; 356(9224):90–1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10963241Find this resource:

459 Greenough A et al. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 1:CD000456 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18253979

460 Spence K. Nasal versus oral intubation for mechanical ventilation of newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2:CD000948. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10796391

461 Tyson J. Intensive care for extreme prematurity--moving beyond gestational age. NEJM 2008; 358:1672. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa073059

462 Shahid SK. Efficacy and safety of cefepime in late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in infants: a pilot randomized and controlled study. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2008; 102(1):63–71. PubMed ID: 18186979. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18186979&from=cqsrFind this resource:

463 Spence K et al. Nasal versus oral intubation for mechanical ventilation of newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1999; 2:CD000948. http://www.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab000948.html

464 Kolatat T et al. Airway complications in neonates who received mechanical ventilation. J Med Assoc Thai 2002; 85(Suppl 2):S455–62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12403220

465 Blair P et al. Sudden infant death syndrome and the time of death: factors associated with night-time and day-time deaths. Int J Epidemiol 2006; 35(6):1563–9. PubMed ID: 17148463. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17148463&from=cqsrFind this resource:

466 Froen JF. Adverse effects of nicotine and interleukin-1beta on autoresuscitation after apnea in piglets: implications for sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics 2000; 105(4):E52. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10742373Find this resource:

467 Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: updated 2016 recommendations for a safe Infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics 2016; 138(5):e20162938. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=27940804Find this resource:

468 Blair PS et al. Chapter 15: Observational investigations from England: the CESDI and SWISS studies. In: Duncan JR et al (eds) SIDS Sudden Infant and Early Childhood Death: The Past, the Present and the Future. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513392/

469 SIDS in Winter. http://health.theledger.com/article/20070226/FAMILY/3717/-1/RSS2&source=RSS

470 Mitchell EA. Recommendations for sudden infant death syndrome prevention: a discussion document. Arch Dis Child 2007; 92(2):155–9. PubMed ID: 17264285. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17264285&from=cqsrFind this resource:

471 Lahr MB et al. Maternal-infant bedsharing: risk factors for bedsharing in a population-based survey of new mothers and implications for SIDS risk reduction. Matern Child Health J 2007; 11(3):277–86. PubMed ID: 17195100. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17195100&from=cqsrFind this resource:

472 Ashkenazi S. Dilute apple juice superior to electrolyte solution in mild dehydration. J Pediatr 2016; 178:303–4. PubMed ID:27788840. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27788840

473 NICE. Diarrhoea and vomiting caused by gastroenteritis in under 5s: diagnosis and management (CG84). NICE; 2009. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg84/resources/diarrhoea-and-vomiting-caused-by-gastroenteritis-in-under-5s-diagnosis-and-management-pdf-975688889029

474 Paineau DL. Family dietary coaching to improve nutritional intakes and body weight control: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2008; 162(1):34–43. http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/162/1/34Find this resource:

475 Isganaitis E et al. Preventing childhood obesity: can we do it? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2008; 15(1):1–8. PubMed ID: 18185057. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18185057&from=cqsrFind this resource:

476 Horne PJ et al. Increasing children’s physical activity: a peer modelling, rewards and pedometer-based intervention. Eur J Clin Nutr 2009; 63(2):191–8. PubMed ID: 17882131. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17882131&from=cqsrFind this resource:

477 Cross Continents Collaboration for Kids (3Cs4kids) Analysis and Writing Committee. Markers for predicting mortality in untreated HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings: a meta-analysis. AIDS 2008; 22(1):97–105. PubMed ID: 18090397. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18090397&from=cqsrFind this resource:

478 Calcaterra V et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents with varying degrees of obesity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2008; 68(6):868–72. PubMed ID: 17980007. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17980007&from=cqsrFind this resource:

479 Puri M et al. The frequency of elevated blood pressure in obese minority youth. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2008; 10(2):119–24. PubMed ID: 18256576. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18256576&from=cqsrFind this resource:

480 Sen Y et al. Prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents: the role of the severity of obesity. Eur J Pediatr 2008; 167(10):1183–9. PubMed ID: 18205011. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=18205011&from=cqsrFind this resource:

481 Taylor RW et al. Reducing weight gain in children through enhancing physical activity and nutrition: the APPLE project. Int J Pediatr Obes 2006; 1(3):146–52. PubMed ID: 17899632. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=17899632&from=cqsrFind this resource: