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date: 26 June 2022

Chapter 12: Psychiatry

1 Polonius. In: Shakespeare W. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamlet

2 Harris GT et al. Prospective replication of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide in predicting violent recidivism among forensic patients. Law and Human Behavior 26.4 (2002):377–394. PubMed ID: 12182529. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12182529

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14 Rosenheck RA et al. Cost-effectiveness of intensive psychiatric community care for high users of inpatient services. Archives of General Psychiatry 55.5 (1998):459–466. http://archneur.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=203887

15 Maden A et al. Offending in psychiatric patients after discharge from medium secure units: prospective national cohort study. BMJ 328.7455 (2004):1534. http://www.bmj.com/content/328/7455/1534?variant=short

16 Dieterich M, Irving CB, Park B, Marshall M. Intensive case management for severe mental illness. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 10 (2010). http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/enhanced/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007906.pub2

17 Marshall M et al. Assertive community treatment for people with severe mental disorders. The Cochrane Library (2011). http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001089/pdf/

18 Petersen L et al. A randomised multicentre trial of integrated versus standard treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness. BMJ 331.7517 (2005):602. http://www.bmj.com/content/331/7517/602.short

19 Wiersma D et al. Natural course of schizophrenic disorders: a 15-year followup of a Dutch incidence cohort. Schizophrenia Bulletin 24.1 (1998):75. http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/szb/24/1/75/

20 Mueser KT et al. Schizophrenia. The Lancet 363 (2004):2063–2072. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15207959

21 van Os J et al. Schizophrenia. The Lancet 374 (2009):635–645. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(09)60995-8/abstract

22 Kramlinger KG et al. Adding lithium carbonate to carbamazepine: antimanic efficacy in treatment-resistant mania. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 79.4 (1989):378–385. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1989.tb10273.x/abstract

23 Miller DS et al. Comparative efficacy of typical and atypical antipsychotics as add-on therapy to mood stabilizers in the treatment of acute mania. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 62.12 (2001):975–980. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11780879

24 Tohen M et al. Efficacy of olanzapine in combination with valproate or lithium in the treatment of mania in patients partially nonresponsive to valproate or lithium monotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry 59 (2002):62–69. http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=205956

25 Sachs GS et al. The expert consensus guideline series: medication treatment of bipolar disorder. Postgraduate Medicine 1 (2000):1–104. http://files.getaufc.webnode.com.br/200000231-e511ee60c3/Bipolar_2000.pdf

26 Compton MT et al. The treatment of bipolar depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 61 (2000):57–67. http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2000-15744-009

27 Mukherjee S et al. Electroconvulsive therapy of acute manic episodes: a review of 50 years’ experience. American Journal of Psychiatry 151.2 (1994):169–176. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/ajp.151.2.169

28 Sarris J et al. Omega-3 for bipolar disorder: meta-analyses of use in mania and bipolar depression. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 73.1 (2012):81–86. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/21903025

29 Wiersma D et al. Natural course of schizophrenic disorders: a 15-year followup of a Dutch incidence cohort. Schizophrenia Bulletin 24.1 (1998):75. http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/szb/24/1/75/

30 Mueser KT et al. Schizophrenia. The Lancet 363 (2004):2063–2072. PubMed ID: 15207959. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15207959

31 BioMedicine. ‘Schizophrenia’ term ought to be abolished. http://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-news/-u2018Schizophrenia-u2019-term-ought-to-be-abolishd-14857-1/

32 Stefansson H et al. Neuregulin I and susceptibility to schizophrenia. American Journal of Human Genetics 71 (2002):877–892. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12145742

33 Straub RE et al. Genetic variation in the 6p22 gene DTNBPI, the human ortholog of the mouse dysbindin gene, is associated with schizophrenia. American Journal of Human Genetics 71 (2002):337–348. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12098102

34 Caspi A et al. Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene x environment interaction. Biological Psychiatry 57.10 (2005):1117–1127. PubMed ID: 15866551. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15866551

35 Murray R. New ways of thinking about and treating psychosis. Keynote lecture. Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry 8.8 (2004):20–26. http://www.progressnp.com/

36 Andreasson S et al. Cannabis and schizophrenia. A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. The Lancet 2 (1987):1483–1486 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2892048

37 Arseneault L et al. Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study. BMJ 325 (2002):1212–1213. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12446537

38 Jones P et al. Child development risk factors for adult schizophrenia in the British 1946 cohort. The Lancet 344 (1994):1398–1402. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7968076

39 Jones P et al. Schizophrenia as a long-term outcome of pregnancy, delivery and perinatal complications: a 28-year follow-up of the 1966 north Finland general population cohort. American Journal of Psychiatry 155.3 (1998):355–364. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9501745

40 Boos HB et al. Brain volumes in relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry 64.3 (2007):297–304. PubMed ID: 17339518. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17339518

41 Puri BK et al. Revision Notes in Psychiatry (2nd ed). London: Arnold; 2002, 377–378.Find this resource:

42 Dorph-Petersen KA et al. The influence of chronic exposure to antipsychotic medications on brain size before and after tissue fixation: a comparison of haloperidol and olanzapine in macaque monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology 30.9 (2005):1649–1661. PubMed ID: 15756305. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15756305

43 Murray RM et al. A neurodevelopmental approach to the classification to schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 18 (1992):319–332. http://sun.bma.org.uk/ovidweb_T/ovidweb.cgi

44 Murray RM. New ways of thinking about and treating psychosis. Keynote lecture. Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry 8.8 (2004):20–26. http://www.progressnp.com

45 Marshall M et al. Association between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in cohorts of first-episode patients: a systematic review. Archives of General Psychiatry 62.9 (2005):975–983. http://archneur.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1108403

46 Cant B. Exploring the implications for health professionals of men coming out as gay in healthcare settings. Health & Social Care in the Community 14.1 (2006):9–16. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2005.00583.x/full

47 Awad AG et al. The burden of schizophrenia on caregivers. Pharmacoeconomics 26.2 (2008):149–162. http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00019053-200826020-00005

48 Bressi C et al. Systemic family therapy in schizophrenia: a randomized clinical trial of effectiveness. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 77.1 (2008):43–49. http://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/110059

49 Morgan VA et al. Do women express and experience psychosis differently from men? Epidemiological evidence from the Australian National Study of Low Prevalence (Psychotic) Disorders. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 42.1 (2008):74–82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18058447

50 Amos AJ. A review of spin and bias use in the early intervention in psychosis literature. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders 16.1 (2014). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4048144/

51 Bagnall A-M et al. A systematic review of atypical antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia. Health Technology Assessment 37.13 (2003):1–193. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12925268

52 Davis JM et al. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of second generation antipsychotics. Archives of General Psychiatry 60 (2003):553–564. PubMed ID: 12796218. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12796218

53 Leucht S et al. Relapse prevention in schizophrenia with new-generation antipsychotic: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Psychiatry 160 (2003):1209–1222. PubMed ID: 12832232 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12832232

54 Taylor M et al. ‘Do unto others as … ’ – which treatments do psychiatrists prefer? Scottish Medical Journal 52.1 (2007):17–19. PubMed ID: 17373419. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17373419

55 Burns T et al. Switching antipsychotic medications: general recommendations and switching to amisulpride. Current Medical Research and Opinion 18.4 (2002):201–208. PubMed ID: 12201620. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12201620

56 Suzuki T et al. Revising polypharmacy to a single antipsychotic regimen for patients with chronic schizophrenia. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 7.02 (2004):133–142. http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S1461145703004012

57 Chan J et al. Combination therapy with non-clozapine atypical antipsychotic medication: a review of current evidence. Journal of Psychopharmacology 21.6 (2007):657–664. PubMed ID: 17092976. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17092976

58 Arvanitis LA et al. Multiple fixed doses of “Seroquel” (quetiapine) in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia: a comparison with haloperidol and placebo. Biological Psychiatry 42.4 (1997):233–246. PubMed ID: 9270900. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9270900

59 Volavka J et al. Prolactin levels in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients treated with clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, or haloperidol. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65 (2004):57–61. PubMed ID: 14744169. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14744169

60 Costa AM et al. A naturalistic, 9-month follow-up, comparing olanzapine and conventional antipsychotics on sexual function and hormonal profile for males with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychopharmacology 21.2 (2007):161–170. PubMed ID: 17329296. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17329296

61 Holtmann M et al. Risperidone-associated ejaculatory and urinary dysfunction in male adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 13.1 (2003):107–109. PubMed ID: 12804132. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=12804132&from=cqsr

62 Compton MT. Risperidone-induced ejaculatory disturbances. Psychiatric Services 53.3 (2002):347. http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/3/347

63 Rosenberg KP et al. A survey of sexual side effects among severely mentally ill patients taking psychotropic medications: impact on compliance. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 29.4 (2003):289–296. PubMed ID: 14504017. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14504017

64 Keller R et al. Switch to quetiapine in antipsychotic agent-related hyperprolactinemia. Neurological Sciences 23.5 (2002):233–235. PubMed ID: 12522680. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12522680

65 Taylor DM et al. Atypical antipsychotics and weight gain – a systematic review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 101 (2000):416–432. PubMed ID: 10868465. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10868465

66 American Diabetes Association et al. Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:596–601. http://www.diabetes.org/for-media/2004-press-releases/jan-27-04.jsp

67 Gill SS et al. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and risk of ischaemic stroke: population based retrospective cohort study. BMJ 330.7489 (2005):445. http://www.bmj.com/content/330/7489/445.short

68 Gordon C et al. Do all relapses in schizophrenia warrant resumption of medication? The American Journal of Psychiatry 168.9 (2011):987. PubMed ID: 21890806. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21890806

69 Geddes JR et al. Relapse prevention with antidepressant drug treatment in depressive disorders: a systematic review. The Lancet 361 (2003):653–661. PubMed ID: 12606176. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12606176

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81 Sproule B. Lithium in bipolar disorder: can drug concentrations predict therapeutic effect? Clinical Pharmacokinetics 41.9 (2002):639–660. PubMed ID: 12126457. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12126457

82 Hawton K. Suicide risk and prevention in bipolar disorder. Psychiatr Danub 18 Suppl 1 (2006):33–34. PubMed ID: 16963886. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16963886

83 Brown EB et al. A 7-week, randomized, double-blind trial of olanzapine/fluoxetine combination versus lamotrigine in the treatment of bipolar I depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 67.7 (2006):1025–1033. PubMed ID: 16889444. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16889444

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86 Cipriani A et al. Haloperidol alone or in combination for acute mania. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3 (2006):CD004362. PubMed ID: 16856043. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16856043

87 Kramlinger et al. ADDing lithium carbonate to carbamazepine: antimanic efficacy in treatment resistant mania. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 79 (1989):378–385. PubMed ID: 2500006. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2500006

88 Miller DS et al. Comparative efficacy of typical and atypical antipsychotics as add-on therapy to mood stabilizers in the treatment of acute mania. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 62 (2001):975–980. PubMed ID: 11780879. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11780879

89 Tohen M et al. Efficacy of olanzapine in combination with valproate or lithium in the treatment of mania in patients partially nonresponsive to valproate or lithium monotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry 59 (2002):62–69. http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/57/9/841

90 Sachs GS. The Expert Consensus Guideline Series: medication treatment of bipolar disorder 2000. Postgraduate Medicine Special Issue (2000):1–104. PubMed ID: 10895797. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10895797

91 Compton MT. The treatment of bipolar depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 61(Suppl 9) (2000):57–67. PubMed ID: 10826663. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10826663

92 Mukherjee S et al. Electroconvulsive therapy of acute manic episodes: a review of 50 years’ experience. American Journal of Psychiatry 151 (1994):169–176. PubMed ID: 8296883. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8296883

93 Sarris J et al. Omega-3 for bipolar disorder: meta-analyses of use in mania and bipolar depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 73.1 (2012):81–86. PubMed ID: 21903025. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21903025/

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118 Quitpaxil.org. (Personal experience blog.) http://www.quitpaxil.info/Main/advice.htm

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121 de Vries ALC et al. Autism spectrum disorders in gender dysphoric children and adolescents. J Autism Dev Disord (2010):40, 930–936.Find this resource:

122 For a summary on attitudes towards transgender, lesbian, gay, and bisexual staff and patients within health and social care services in the UK see https://www.stonewall.org.uk/our-work/campaigns/unhealthy-attitudes)

123 Hatcher S et al. Problem-solving therapy for people who present to hospital with self-harm: Zelen randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry 199.4 (2011):310–316. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/199/4/310.short

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125 Hawton K et al. Self-harm in England: a tale of three cities. Multicentre study of self-harm. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 42 (2007):513–521. PubMed ID: 17516016. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17516016

126 Sylvia Plath reads ‘A Birthday Present’: a rare 1962 recording. http://www.brainpickings.org/2012/10/29/sylvia-plath-reads-a-birthday-present-1962/

127 Joy CB. Crisis intervention for people with severe mental illnesses. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2 (2000):CD001087. PubMed ID: 10796414. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10796414

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