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Obstetrics 

Obstetrics
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date: 26 June 2022

Chapter 1: Obstetrics

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3 Sheikh S et al. The birth of forceps. JRSM Short Rep 2013; 4(7):1–4. PubMed ID: 23885296. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3704058Find this resource:

4 RCOG. Reduced Fetal Movements (Green-top Guideline 57). London: RCOG; 2011 https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg57/

5 van der Meer IM et al. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant non-Western women in The Hague, Netherlands. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 84(2):350–3. PubMed ID: 16895882. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16895882Find this resource:

6 Hezelgrave N. Advising on travel during pregnancy. BMJ 2011; 342:1074–8. PubMed ID: 21527456. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21527456

7 RCOG. Use of anti-D immunoglobulin for rhesus D prophylaxis (Green-top Guideline 22). RCOG; 2011. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg22/

8 Whitlow BJ et al. The value of sonography in early pregnancy for the detection of fetal abnormalities in an unselected population. BJOG 1999; 106(9):929–36. PubMed ID: 10492104. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10492104Find this resource:

9 Mol BWJ. Down’s syndrome, cardiac anomalies, and nuchal translucency. BMJ 1999;318:70–1. PubMed ID: 9880259. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/318/7176/70?

10 Hyett J et al. Using fetal nuchal translucency to screen for major congenital cardiac defects at 10–14 weeks of gestation: population based cohort study. BMJ 1999; 318(7176):81–5. PubMed ID: 9880278. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9880278Find this resource:

11 Makrydimas G et al. Screening performance of first-trimester nuchal translucency for major cardiac defects: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 189:1330–5. PubMed ID: 14634564. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14634564

12 McAuliffe FM et al. Fetal cardiac defects and increased nuchal translucency thickness: a prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191:1486–90. PubMed ID: 15507988. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507988

13 Maymon R et al. The clinical evaluation and pregnancy outcome of euploid fetuses with increased nuchal translucency. Clin Genet 2004; 66:426–36. PubMed ID: 15479188. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15479188

14 Kagan KO et al. Dose dependency between cigarette consumption and reduced maternal serum PAPP-A levels at 11–13(+6) weeks of gestation. Prenat Diagn 2007; 27:849–53. PubMed ID: 17590888. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17590888

15 NICE. Multiple pregnancy: the management of twin and triplet pregnancies in the antenatal period (CG129). NICE; 2011. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg129

16 RCOG. Non-invasive prenatal testing for chromosomal abnormality using maternal plasma DNA (Scientific Impact Paper No. 15). RCOG; 2014. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/sip_15_04032014.pdf

17 RCOG. Management of sickle cell disease in pregnancy (Green-top Guideline 61). RCOG; 2011. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg61/

18 Muñoz M et al. International consensus statement on the peri-operative management of anaemia and iron deficiency. Anaesthesia 2017; 72:233–47. PubMed ID: 27996086 . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27996086

19 NICE. Caesarean section (CG132). NICE; 2011. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg132

20 Stowers JM. Long-range implications for the mother. The Aberdeen experience. Diabetes 1985; 34(Suppl 2):106–10. PubMed ID: 3888735. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3888735

21 NICE. Diabetes in pregnancy. NICE; 2008. http://pathways.nice.org.uk/pathways/diabetes-in-pregnancy

22 RCOG. Obstetric cholestasis (Green-top Guideline 43). RCOG; 2006. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg43/

23 Health Protection Agency. UK standards for microbiology investigations. Vertical and perinatal transmission of hepatitis C. Virology 2011; 8:1–13. http://www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1317131298833

24 RCOG. The diagnosis and treatment of malaria in pregnancy (Green-top Guideline 54B). RCOG; 2010. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg_54b.pdf

25 RCOG. The prevention of malaria in pregnancy (Green-top Guideline 54A). RCOG; 2010. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg_54a.pdf

26 ter Kuile FO et al. Effect of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance on the efficacy of intermittent preventive therapy for malaria control during pregnancy: a systematic review. JAMA 2007; 297:2603–16. PubMed ID: 17579229. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=207561

27 Newman RD et al. Safety, efficacy and determinants of effectiveness of antimalarial drugs during pregnancy: implications for prevention programmes in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Med Int Health 2003; 8(6):488–506. PubMed ID: 12791054. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12791054Find this resource:

28 White NJ. Intermittent presumptive treatment for malaria. PLoS Med 2005; 2(1):e3. PubMed ID: 15696210. http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0020003Find this resource:

29 RCOG. Epilepsy in pregnancy (Green-top Guideline 68). London: RCOG; 2016.Find this resource:

30 Galloway JB. The risks of radiation exposure related to diagnostic imaging and how to minimise them. BMJ 2011; 342:d947. PubMed ID: 21355025. https://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/11/03/imaging-pregnancy

31 Public Health England. Guidance on viral rash in pregnancy. HPA; 2011. http://www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1294740918985

32 RCOG. Chickenpox in pregnancy (Green-top Guideline No. 13). RCOG; 2007. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg13/

33 Bowman RJ et al. Operational comparison of single-dose azithromycin and topical tetracycline for trachoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000; 41(13):4074–9. PubMed ID: 11095598. http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2162131Find this resource:

34 Bakshi D et al. Selective neonatal BCG vaccination. Acta Paediatr 2004; 93:1207–9. PubMed ID: 15384885. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15384885

35 Money DM et al. Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases Committee. The prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004; 26(9):826–40. PubMed ID: 15361281. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15361281Find this resource:

36 NICE. PlGF-based testing to help diagnose suspected pre-eclampsia (Diagnostics guidance DG23). NICE; 2016. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/dg23

37 RCOG. Antenatal corticosteroids to reduce perinatal mortality and morbidity (Green-top Guideline No. 7). RCOG; 2010. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg7/

38 The Antenatal Magnesium Sulphate for Neuroprotection Guideline Development Panel. Antenatal magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection guideline. University of Adelaide; 2010. http://www.adelaide.edu.au/arch/antenatalMagnesiumSulphateGuidlines.pdf

39 Resuscitation Council (UK) Guidelines. Newborn life support. 2010; page 125. http://www.resus.org.uk/

40 Crowther C et al. Repeat doses of prenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for preventing neonatal respiratory disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 3:CD003935. PubMed ID: 17636741. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17636741

41 Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Critical care decisions in fetal and neonatal medicine: ethical issues. Nuffield Council on Bioethics; 2006. http://nuffieldbioethics.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/CCD-web-version-22-June-07-updated.pdf

42 Santhakumaran S et al. Survival of very preterm infants admitted to neonatal care in England 2008–2014. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018; 103:F208–15. PubMed ID: 28883097. https://fn.bmj.com/content/early/2017/09/06/archdischild-2017-312748

43 NICE. Induction of labour (CG70). NICE; 2008. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG70/Guidance/pdf/English

44 Van Rheenen P. Delayed cord clamping and improved infant outcome. BMJ 2011; 343:d7127. PubMed ID: 22089240. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=22089240

45 Weeks A et al. Oral misoprostol administration for labor induction. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2006; 49:658–71. PubMed ID: 16885670. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16885670

46 RCOG. Reducing risk of thrombosis and embolism in pregnancy and puerperium (Green-top Guideline 37a). RCOG; 2009. http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcogcorp/GTG37aReducingRiskThrombosis.pdf

47 RCOG. Perinatal risks associated with IVF (Scientific Impact Paper No. 8). RCOG; 2012. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/sip8/

48 McLemon DJ et al. Clinical effectiveness of elective single versus double embryo transfer: meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. BMJ 2010; 341:c6945. PubMed ID: 21177530. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21177530

49 RCOG. Placenta praevia, placenta accreta, vasa praevia: diagnosis and management (Green-top Guideline 27). RCOG; 2010. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg_27.pdf

50 Garel M. Psychological consequences of having triplets: a 4-year follow-up study. Fertil Steril 1997; 67(6):1162–5. PubMed ID: 9176462. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9176462Find this resource:

51 Garel M. Psychological reactions after multifetal pregnancy reduction: a 2-year follow-up study. Hum Reprod 1997; 12(3):617–22. PubMed ID: 9130770. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9130770Find this resource:

52 RCOG. External cephalic version (Green-top Guideline No. 20a). RCOG; 2006. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gt20aexternalcephalicversion.pdf

53 RCOG. Reduced fetal movements (Green-top Guideline No. 57). RCOG; 2011.Find this resource:

54 NICE. Intrapartum care (CG55). NICE; 2007. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg55

55 Loudon JA et al. Changing trends in operative delivery performed at full dilatation over a 10-year period. J Obstet Gynaecol 2010; 30(4):370–5. PubMed ID: 20455720. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20455720Find this resource:

56 Gilbert WM et al. Associated factors in 1611 cases of brachial plexus injury. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 93(4):536–40. PubMed ID: 10214829. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10214829Find this resource:

57 Gosk J et al. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy – etiopathogenesis, risk factors, prevention, prognosis. Ginekol Pol 2004; 75(10):814–20. PubMed ID: 15587915. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15587915Find this resource:

58 Poggi SH et al. Effect of operative vaginal delivery on the outcome of permanent brachial plexus injury. J Reprod Med 2003; 48(9):692–6. PubMed ID: 14562633. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgibin/abstract.cgi?id=14562633&from=cqsrFind this resource:

59 NICE. Caesarean section (CG132). NICE; 2011, reviewed 2014. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg132

60 RCOG. Late intrauterine fetal death and stillbirth (Green-top Guideline 55). RCOG; 2010. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg55/

61 RCOG. Registration of stillbirths and certification for pregnancy loss before 24 weeks of gestation (Good Practice Paper 4). RCOG; 2005. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/goodpractice4registrationstillbirth2005.pdf

62 Hall M. Chapter 4 in Why Mothers Die; Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health 2000–2. CEMACH; 2004. http://www.cemach.org.uk/Publications/CEMACHPublications/Maternal-and-Perinatal-Health.aspx

63 RCOG. Placenta praevia accreta & vasa praevia: diagnosis and management (CG27). RCOG; 2011. http://www.rcog.org.uk/guidelines

64 RCOG. Diabetes in pregnancy. Are we providing the best care? RCOG; 2007.Find this resource:

65 Wall LL. Obstetric vesicovaginal fistula as an international public-health problem. Lancet 2006; 368:1201–9. PubMed ID: 17011947. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17011947

66 NICE. Postnatal care up to 8 weeks after birth (CG37). NICE; 2006. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg37

67 Cooper M, Cameron S. Postpartum contraception. TOG 2018; 20:159–66. https://obgyn.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/tog.12494

68 Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care Clinical Effectiveness Unit. Contraceptive choices for breastfeeding women. Br J Fam Plan and Reprod 2004; 30:181–9. PubMed ID: 16824309. http://www.fsrh.org/pdfs/archive/breastfeeding04.pdf

69 NICE. Contraception – combined hormonal methods. NICE; 2019. https://cks.nice.org.uk/contraception-combined-hormonal-methods#!scenariorecommendation

70 RCOG. Umbilical cord prolapse (Green-top Guideline No. 50). RCOG; 2006. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg50/

71 RCOG. Birth after previous Caesarean birth (Green-top Guideline No. 45). RCOG; 2015. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg_45.pdf

72 Turner MJ et al. Uterine rupture and labour after a previous low transverse caesarean section. BJOG 2006; 113(6):729–32. PubMed ID: 16709218 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16709218Find this resource:

73 Ellmauer S. [Prophylaxis and therapy of the acid aspiration syndrome.] Anaesthesist 1987; 36(11):599–607. PubMed ID: 3322095. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3322095Find this resource:

74 Ronsmans C et al. Maternal mortality: who, when, where, and why. Lancet 2006; 368:1189–200. PubMed ID: 17011946. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17011946

75 Tandberg A et al. Trends in incidence and mortality for triplets in Norway 1967–2006: the influence of assisted reproductive technologies. BJOG 2010; 117:667–75. PubMed ID: 20236102. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20236102

76 Basso O et al. Subfecundity and neonatal mortality: longitudinal study within the Danish national birth cohort. BMJ 2005; 330:393–4. PubMed ID: 15695499. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15695499

77 CEMACH. Perinatal Mortality 2005. CEMACH; 2007. http://www.hqip.org.uk/national-programmes/a-z-of-clinical-outcome-review-programmes/cmace-reports/

78 RCOG. Thematic analysis 2: fetal monitoring. In: Each baby counts: 2015 full report. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/audit-quality-improvement/each-baby-counts/ebc-2015-report/fetal-monitoring/