- List of Abbreviations
- Chapter 1 Scope of epidemiological enquiry and overview of main problem areas
- Chapter 2 Which measure of disease occurrence?
- Chapter 3 Comparing rates between and within populations
- Chapter 4 Studies of disease occurrence
- Chapter 5 Studies of disease occurrence
- Chapter 6 Which type of epidemiological study?
- Chapter 7 Quantifying the association between exposures and diseases
- Chapter 8 Studies of disease causation
- Chapter 9 Use of secondary data
- Chapter 10 Collecting information
- Chapter 11 Obtaining valid information
- Chapter 12 Repeatability
- Chapter 13 Participation in epidemiology studies
- Chapter 14 Feasibility and pilot studies
- Chapter 15 Preparation of collected primary data for statistical analysis
- Chapter 16 Introductory data analysis
- Chapter 17 Introductory data analysis
- Chapter 18 Confounding
- Chapter 19 Bias
- Chapter 20 Association or causation
- Chapter 21 Reviews of evidence
- Chapter 22 Meta-analysis
- Chapter 23 Ethical issues in epidemiology
- Chapter 24 The costs of an epidemiological study
(p. 192) Confounding
- (p. 192) Confounding
Alan J. Silman
, Gary J. Macfarlane
, and Tatiana Macfarlane
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