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Cardiothoracic surgery 

Cardiothoracic surgery
Chapter:
Cardiothoracic surgery
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198799481.003.0018
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date: 06 July 2022

This chapter focuses on cardiothoracic surgery. It begins by outlining the principles of cardiac surgery. The majority of procedures are coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) operations, followed by aortic valve replacements, mitral valve (MV) repair and replacements, and aortic surgeries. Meticulous preoperative work-up is essential. All investigations must be checked; sometimes, even small abnormalities can have significant harmful consequences to the patient outcomes. Many patients are elderly with multiple comorbidities, but most of the patients should be out of ICU within a day or two, and ready to go home in a week. The chapter then looks at coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, lung cancer, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and mediastinal disease. It also considers the cardiothoracic ICU.

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