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Occupational epidemiology 

Occupational epidemiology
Chapter:
Occupational epidemiology
Author(s):

Angelo d’Errico

, and Giuseppe Costa

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198792994.003.0011
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date: 22 February 2020

Occupational epidemiology has investigated extensively during the last decades the potential impact on mental health of several aspects of work organization, testing the effect of psychosocial exposures derived from theoretical constructs of work stress grown in its own field and in other disciplines (psychology, sociology, ergonomics). The two most important theoretical models are the demand–control–support model and the effort–reward imbalance model, whose effects have been evaluated in hundreds of studies. Other psychosocial dimensions strongly suspected for their association with mental health are emotional demand, organizational justice, work–family conflicts, job insecurity, and working time (long working hours and shift work). For these exposures, moderate-to-good evidence of a causal association with mental disorders has been demonstrated in several epidemiological studies characterized by good methodological quality, pointing to the need to reduce workers’ exposure to these occupational hazards.

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