Show Summary Details
Page of

References 

References
Author(s):

Andrea E. Cavanna

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2016. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

Subscriber: null; date: 23 October 2019

Books

Asadi-Pooya AA, Sperling MR. Antiepileptic drugs: A clinician’s manual, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.Find this resource:

    Ettinger AB, Kanner AM. Psychiatric issues in epilepsy: A practical guide to diagnosis and treatment, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006.Find this resource:

      Levy RH, Mattson RH, Meldrum BS, Perucca E (eds). Antiepileptic drugs, 5th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002.Find this resource:

        McElroy SL, Keck PE, Post RM (eds) Antiepileptic drugs to treat psychiatric disorders. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare USA, 2008.Find this resource:

          Mula M (ed.) Neuropsychiatric symptoms of epilepsy. Heidelberg: Springer, 2016.Find this resource:

            National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Clinical Guideline (CG137) Epilepsies: Diagnosis and Management. NICE, 2012 (updated 2016).Find this resource:

              Panayiotopoulos CP (ed.) Atlas of epilepsies. London: Springer, 2010.Find this resource:

                Patsalos PN. Antiepileptic drug interactions: A clinical guide, 2nd edn. London: Springer, 2013.Find this resource:

                Patsalos PN, Bourgeois BFD. The epilepsy prescriber’s guide to antiepileptic drugs, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.Find this resource:

                Pohlmann-Eden B, Steinhoff BJ. Understanding antiepileptic drugs: Guiding you through the maze of options. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.Find this resource:

                  Schachter SC, Holmes GL, Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité (eds) Behavioral aspects of epilepsy: Principles and practice. New York, NY: Demos, 2008.Find this resource:

                    Shorvon SD. Handbook of epilepsy treatment, 3rd edn. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell 2010.Find this resource:

                    Shorvon SD, Perucca E, Engel J Jr (eds) The treatment of epilepsy, 4th edn. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015.Find this resource:

                      Silberstein SD, Marmura MJ, Yuan H. Essential neuropharmacology: Prescriber’s guide, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.Find this resource:

                        Stahl SM. Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications, 4th edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.Find this resource:

                          Stahl SM. Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Prescriber’guide, 5th edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.Find this resource:

                            Trimble MR, Schmitz B (eds) Forced normalization and alternative psychoses of epilepsy. Petersfield: Wrightson Biomedical Publishing, 1998.Find this resource:

                              Trimble MR, Schmitz B (eds) Seizures, affective disorders and anticonvulsant drugs. Guildford: Clarius Press, 2002.Find this resource:

                                Trimble MR, Schmitz B (eds) The neuropsychiatry of epilepsy, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.Find this resource:

                                  Wyllie E (ed.) Wyllie’s treatment of epilepsy: Principles and practice, 5th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011.Find this resource:

                                    Book chapters

                                    Kaufman KR. Antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In: Panayiotopoulos CP (ed.) Atlas of epilepsies. London: Springer, 2010, pp. 1571–6.Find this resource:

                                    Schmitz B. The effects of antiepileptic drugs on behaviour. In: Trimble MR, Schmitz B (eds) The neuropsychiatry of epilepsy, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 133–42.Find this resource:

                                    Yogarajah M, Mula M. The role of antiepileptic drugs. In: Mula M (ed.) Neuropsychiatric symptoms of epilepsy. Heidelberg: Springer, 2016, pp. 333–60.Find this resource:

                                    Articles

                                    Ali F, Rickards H, Cavanna AE. The assessment of consciousness during partial seizures. Epilepsy and Behavior 2012; 23: 98–102.Find this resource:

                                    Baldwin DS, den Boer JA, Lyndon G, Emir B, Schweizer E, Haswell H. Efficacy and safety of pregabalin in generalised anxiety disorder: A critical review of the literature. Journal of Psychopharmacology 2015; 29: 1047–60.Find this resource:

                                    Bangar S, Shastri A, El-Sayeh H, Cavanna AE. Women with epilepsy: Clinically relevant issues. Functional Neurology 2016; 31: 127–34.Find this resource:

                                      Berg AT, Altalib HH, Devinsky O. Psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities in epilepsy: A critical reappraisal. Epilepsia 2017; 58: 1123–30.Find this resource:

                                      Berlin RK, Butler PM, Perloff MD. Gabapentin therapy in psychiatric disorders: A systematic review. Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders 2015; 17: 5.Find this resource:

                                        Besag FM, Patsalos PN. Clinical efficacy of perampanel for partial-onset and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2016; 12: 1215–20.Find this resource:

                                          Bialer M. Why are antiepileptic drugs used for nonepileptic conditions? Epilepsia 2012; 53(Suppl. 7): 26–33.Find this resource:

                                          Blumer D. Evidence supporting the temporal lobe epilepsy personality syndrome. Neurology 1999; 53(Suppl. 2): 9–12.Find this resource:

                                            Boylan LS, Devinsky O, Barry JJ, Ketter TA. Psychiatric uses of antiepileptic treatments. Epilepsy & Behavior 2002; 3: 54–9.Find this resource:

                                            Brandt C, Mula M. Anxiety disorders in people with epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior 2016; 59: 87–91.Find this resource:

                                            Brodie MJ. Antiepileptic drug therapy: The story so far. Seizure 2010; 19: 650–5.Find this resource:

                                            Brodie MJ, Besag F, Ettinger AB, Mula M, Gobbi G, Comai S, Aldenkamp AP, Steinhoff BJ. Epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs, and aggression: An evidence-based review. Pharmacological Reviews 2016; 68: 563–602.Find this resource:

                                            Brodtkorb E, Mula M. Optimizing therapy of seizures in adult patients with psychiatric comorbidity. Neurology 2006; 67(Suppl. 4): 39–44.Find this resource:

                                            Brunbech L, Sabers A. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on cognitive function in individuals with epilepsy: A comparative review of newer versus older agents. Drugs 2002; 62: 593–604.Find this resource:

                                            Buoli M, Grassi S, Ciappolino V, Serati M, Altamura AC. The use of zonisamide for the treatment of psychiatric disorders: A systematic review. Clinical Neuropharmacology 2017; 40: 85–92.Find this resource:

                                            Caputo F, Bernardi M. Medications acting on the GABA system in the treatment of alcoholic patients. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2010; 16: 2118–25.Find this resource:

                                            Cavanna AE. Epilepsy, behavior, and neuropsychiatry. Epilepsy & Behavior 2014; 40: 78.Find this resource:

                                            Cavanna AE, Ali F, Rickards HE, McCorry D. Behavioural and cognitive effects of anti-epileptic drugs. Discovery Medicine 2010; 9: 138–44.Find this resource:

                                            Cavanna AE, Cavanna S, Bertero L, Robertson MM. Depression in women with epilepsy: Clinical and neurobiological aspects. Functional Neurology 2009; 24: 83–7.Find this resource:

                                            Cavanna AE, Rickards H, Ali F. What makes a simple partial seizure complex? Epilepsy and Behavior 2011; 22: 651–8.Find this resource:

                                            Cavanna AE, Seri S. Psychiatric adverse effects of Zonisamide in patients with epilepsy and mental disorder comorbidities. Epilepsy & Behavior 2013; 29: 281–4.Find this resource:

                                            Cipriani A, Reid K, Young AH, Macritchie K, Geddes J. Valproic acid, valproate and divalproex in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013; 10: CD003196.Find this resource:

                                              Cox JH, Seri S, Cavanna AE. Zonisamide as a treatment for partial epileptic seizures: A systematic review. Advances in Therapy 2014; 31: 276–88.Find this resource:

                                              Devinsky O. Cognitive and behavioral effects of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 1995; 36(Suppl. 2): 46–65.Find this resource:

                                              Devinsky O, Najjar S. Evidence against the existence of a temporal lobe epilepsy personality syndrome. Neurology 1999; 53(Suppl. 2): 13–25.Find this resource:

                                                D’Souza J, Johnson M, Borghs S. Meta-analysis of nonpsychotic behavioral treatment emergent adverse events in brivaracetam and levetiracetam development programs. Epilepsia 2012; 53(Suppl. 5): 118.Find this resource:

                                                  Eddy CM, Rickards H, Cavanna AE. Behavioral adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2012; 32: 362–75.Find this resource:

                                                  Eddy CM, Rickards HE, Cavanna AE. The cognitive impact of antiepileptic drugs. Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders 2011; 4: 380–402.Find this resource:

                                                  Ettinger AB. Antiepileptics for psychiatric illness: Find the right match. Current Psychiatry 2010; 9: 50–66.Find this resource:

                                                    Ettinger AB. Psychotropic effects of antiepileptic drugs. Neurology 2006; 67: 1916–25.Find this resource:

                                                    Frampton JE. Pregabalin: A review of its use in adults with generalized anxiety disorder. CNS Drugs 2014; 28: 835–54.Find this resource:

                                                    Generoso MB, Trevizol AP, Kasper S, Cho HJ, Cordeiro Q, Shiozawa P. Pregabalin for generalized anxiety disorder: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 2017; 32: 49–55.Find this resource:

                                                    Gilliam FG, Barry JJ, Hermann BP, Meador KJ, Vahle V, Kanner AM. Rapid detection of major depression in epilepsy: A multicenter study. Lancet Neurology 2006; 5: 399–405.Find this resource:

                                                    Golyala A, Kwan P. Drug development for refractory epilepsy: The past 25 years and beyond. Seizure 2017; 44: 147–56.Find this resource:

                                                    Grunze HC. Anticonvulsants in bipolar disorder. Journal of Mental Health 2010; 19: 127–41.Find this resource:

                                                    Guglielmo R, Martinotti G, Clerici M, Janiri L. Pregabalin for alcohol dependence: A critical review of the literature. Advances in Therapy 2012; 29: 947–57.Find this resource:

                                                    Guglielmo R, Martinotti G, Quatrale M, Ioime L, Kadilli I, Di Nicola M, Janiri L. Topiramate in alcohol use disorders: Review and update. CNS Drugs 2015; 29: 383–95.Find this resource:

                                                    Hermann B, Meador KJ, Gaillard WD, Cramer JA. Cognition across the lifespan: Antiepileptic drugs, epilepsy, or both? Epilepsy & Behavior 2010; 17: 1–5.Find this resource:

                                                    Jerath NU, Lamichhane D, Jasti M, et al. Treating epilepsy in the setting of medical comorbidities. Current Treatment Options in Neurology 2014; 16: 298.Find this resource:

                                                    Johannessen Landmark C. Antiepileptic drugs in non-epilepsy disorders: Relations between mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy. CNS Drugs 2008; 22: 27–47.Find this resource:

                                                    Johnson BA, Ait-Daoud N. Topiramate in the new generation of drugs: Efficacy in the treatment of alcoholic patients. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2010; 16:2103–12.Find this resource:

                                                    Jones R, Rickards H, Cavanna AE. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in epilepsy: A critical review of the evidence. Functional Neurology 2010; 25: 191–4.Find this resource:

                                                    Jones RM, Arlidge J, Gillham R, Reagu S, van den Bree M, Taylor PJ. Efficacy of mood stabilisers in the treatment of impulsive or repetitive aggression: Systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 2011; 198: 93–8.Find this resource:

                                                    Kanner AM. Management of psychiatric and neurological comorbidities in epilepsy. Nature Reviews Neurology 2016; 12: 106–16.Find this resource:

                                                    Kanner AM. Psychiatric comorbidities in new onset epilepsy: Should they be always investigated? Seizure 2017; 49: 79–82.Find this resource:

                                                    Kanner AM, Palac S. Neuropsychiatric complications of epilepsy. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 2002; 2: 365–72.Find this resource:

                                                    Kaufman KR. Antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Epilepsy & Behavior 2011; 21: 1–11.Find this resource:

                                                    Kaufman KR. Use of antiepileptic drugs for nonepileptic conditions: Psychiatric disorders and chronic pain. Neurotherapeutics 2007; 4: 75–83.Find this resource:

                                                    Kerr MP, Mensah S, Besag F, et al. International consensus clinical practice statements for the treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions associated with epilepsy. Epilepsia 2011; 52: 2133–8.Find this resource:

                                                    Ketter TA, Post RM, Theodore WH. Positive and negative psychiatric effects of antiepileptic drugs in patients with seizure disorders. Neurology 1999; 53(Suppl. 2): 53–67.Find this resource:

                                                      Kimiskidis VK, Valeta T. Epilepsy and anxiety: Epidemiology, classification, aetiology, and treatment. Epileptic Disorders 2012; 14: 248–56.Find this resource:

                                                        Kinrys G, Worthington JJ, Wygant L, Nery F, Reese H, Pollack MH. Levetiracetam as adjunctive therapy for refractory anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2007; 68: 1010–13.Find this resource:

                                                        Kirmani BF, Robinson DM, Kikam A, Fonkem E, Cruz D. Selection of antiepileptic drugs in older people. Current Treatment Options in Neurology 2014; 16: 295.Find this resource:

                                                        Krasowski MD. Therapeutic drug monitoring of the newer anti-epilepsy medications. Pharmaceuticals 2010; 3: 1909–35.Find this resource:

                                                        Krishnamoorthy ES. The evaluation of behavioral disturbances in epilepsy. Epilepsia 2006; 47(Suppl. 2): 3–8.Find this resource:

                                                        Krishnamoorthy ES, Trimble MR, Blumer D. The classification of neuropsychiatric disorders in epilepsy: A proposal by the ILAE Commission on Psychobiology of Epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior 2007; 10: 349–53.Find this resource:

                                                        Langan J, Perry A, Oto M. Teratogenic risk and contraceptive counselling in psychiatric practice: Analysis of anticonvulsant therapy. BMC Psychiatry 2013; 13: 234.Find this resource:

                                                        Lennox WG, Markham CH. The socio-psychological treatment of epilepsy. Journal of the American Medical Association 1953; 152: 1690–4.Find this resource:

                                                        Lin JJ, Mula M, Hermann BP. Uncovering the neurobehavioural comorbidities of epilepsy over the lifespan. Lancet 2012; 380: 1180–92.Find this resource:

                                                        Loganathan MA, Enja M, Lippmann S. Forced normalization: Epilepsy and psychosis interaction. Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience 2015; 12: 38–41.Find this resource:

                                                          López-Muñoz F, Ucha-Udabe R, Alamo C. The history of barbiturates a century after their clinical introduction. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2005; 1: 329–43.Find this resource:

                                                          Luykx JJ, Carpay JA. Nervous system adverse responses to topiramate in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 2010; 9: 623–31.Find this resource:

                                                          Malykh AG, Sadaie MR. Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: From basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders. Drugs 2010; 70: 287–312.Find this resource:

                                                          Maremmani I, Pacini M, Lamanna F, et al. Mood stabilizers in the treatment of substance use disorders. CNS Spectrums 2010; 15: 95–109.Find this resource:

                                                          Mariani JJ, Levin FR. Levetiracetam for the treatment of co-occurring alcohol dependence and anxiety: Case series and review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 2008; 34: 683–91.Find this resource:

                                                          Martin K, Katz A. The role of barbiturates for alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Psychosomatics 2016; 57: 341–7.Find this resource:

                                                          Martinotti G, Lupi M, Sarchione F, et al. The potential of pregabalin in neurology, psychiatry and addiction: A qualitative overview. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2013; 19: 6367–74.Find this resource:

                                                          McIntyre RS, Cha DS, Kim RD, Mansur RB. A review of FDA-approved treatment options in bipolar depression. CNS Spectrums 2013; 18(Suppl. 1): 4–20.Find this resource:

                                                            Meador KJ, Gilliam FG, Kanner AM, Pellock JM. Cognitive and behavioral effects of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsy & Behavior 2001; 2(Suppl.): 1–17.Find this resource:

                                                            Mersfelder TL, Nichols WH. Gabapentin: Abuse, dependence, and withdrawal. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2016; 50: 229–33.Find this resource:

                                                              Mitchell JW, Seri S, Cavanna AE. Pharmacotherapeutic options for refractory and difficult-to-treat seizures. Journal of Central Nervous System Disease 2012; 4: 105–15.Find this resource:

                                                              Miura T, Noma H, Furukawa TA, et al. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological treatments in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry 2014; 1: 351–9.Find this resource:

                                                              Motamedi GK, Meador KJ. Antiepileptic drugs and memory. Epilepsy & Behavior 2004; 5: 435–9.Find this resource:

                                                              Motamedi GK, Meador KJ. Epilepsy and cognition. Epilepsy & Behavior 2003; 4(Suppl.): 25–38.Find this resource:

                                                              Mula M. Epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities: Drug selection. Current Treatment Options in Neurology 2017; 19: 44.Find this resource:

                                                              Mula M. Investigating psychotropic properties of antiepileptic drugs. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 2013; 13: 639–46.Find this resource:

                                                              Mula M. Recent and future antiepileptic drugs and their impact on cognition: what can we expect? Expert Reviews of Neurotherapeutics 2012; 12: 667–71.Find this resource:

                                                              Mula M. The interictal dysphoric disorder of epilepsy: Legend or reality? Epilepsy & Behavior 2016; 58: 7–10.Find this resource:

                                                              Mula M, Cavanna AE, Monaco F. Psychopharmacology of topiramate: From epilepsy to bipolar disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2006; 2: 475–88.Find this resource:

                                                              Mula M, Kanner AM, Schmitz B, Schachter S. Antiepileptic drugs and suicidality: An expert consensus statement from the Task Force on Therapeutic Strategies of the ILAE Commission on Neuropsychobiology. Epilepsia 2013; 54: 199–203.Find this resource:

                                                              Mula M, Pini S, Cassano GB. The role of anticonvulsant drugs in anxiety disorders: A critical review of the evidence. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2007; 27: 263–72.Find this resource:

                                                              Mula M, Sander JW. Negative effects of antiepileptic drugs on mood in patients with epilepsy. Drug Safety 2007; 30: 555–67.Find this resource:

                                                              Nadkarni S, Arnedo V, Devinsky O. Psychosis in epilepsy patients. Epilepsia 2007; 48(Suppl. 9): 17–19.Find this resource:

                                                              Nadkarni S, Devinsky O. Psychotropic effects of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsy Currents 2005; 5: 176–81.Find this resource:

                                                              Nardi AE, Machado S, Almada LF, et al. Clonazepam for the treatment of panic disorder. Current Drug Targets 2013; 14: 353–64.Find this resource:

                                                                Nardi AE, Perna G. Clonazepam in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: An update. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 2006; 21: 131–42.Find this resource:

                                                                Nogueira MH, Yasuda CL, Coan AC, Kanner AM, Cendes F. Concurrent mood and anxiety disorders are associated with pharmacoresistant seizures in patients with MTLE. Epilepsia 2017; 58: 1268–76.Find this resource:

                                                                Ortinski P, Meador KJ. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsy & Behavior 2004; 5(Suppl.): 60–5.Find this resource:

                                                                Osman A, Seri S, Cavanna AE. Clinical characteristics of patients with epilepsy in a specialist neuropsychiatry service. Epilepsy & Behavior 2016; 58: 44–7.Find this resource:

                                                                Oulis P, Konstantakopoulos G. Efficacy and safety of pregabalin in the treatment of alcohol and benzodiazepine dependence. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 2012; 21: 1019–29.Find this resource:

                                                                Pacchiarotti I, León-Caballero J, Murru A, et al. Mood stabilizers and antipsychotics during breastfeeding: Focus on bipolar disorder. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2016; 26: 1562–78.Find this resource:

                                                                Perucca P, Carter J, Vahle V, Gilliam FG. Adverse antiepileptic drug effects: Toward a clinically and neurobiologically relevant taxonomy. Neurology 2009; 72: 1223–9.Find this resource:

                                                                Perucca P, Gilliam FG. Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. Lancet Neurology 2012; 11: 792–802.Find this resource:

                                                                Perucca P, Mula M. Antiepileptic drug effects on mood and behavior: Molecular targets. Epilepsy & Behavior 2013; 26: 440–9.Find this resource:

                                                                Pichler EM, Hattwich G, Grunze H, Muehlbacher M. Safety and tolerability of anticonvulsant medication in bipolar disorder. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 2015; 14: 1703–24.Find this resource:

                                                                Piedad J, Rickards H, Besag F, Cavanna AE. Beneficial and adverse psychotropic effects of antiepileptic drugs in patients with epilepsy: A summary of prevalence, underlying mechanisms and data limitations. CNS Drugs 2012; 26: 319–35.Find this resource:

                                                                Pigott K, Galizia I, Vasudev K, Watson S, Geddes J, Young AH. Topiramate for acute affective episodes in bipolar disorder in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016; 9: CD003384.Find this resource:

                                                                  Reid JG, Gitlin MJ, Altshuler LL. Lamotrigine in psychiatric disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2013; 74: 675–84.Find this resource:

                                                                  Rogawski MA, Löscher W. The neurobiology of antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of nonepileptic conditions. Nature Medicine 2004; 10: 685–92.Find this resource:

                                                                  Ruiz-Giménez J, Sánchez-Alvarez JC, Cañadillas-Hidalgo F, Serrano-Castro PJ, Andalusian Epilepsy Society. Antiepileptic treatment in patients with epilepsy and other comorbidities. Seizure 2010; 19: 375–82.Find this resource:

                                                                  Santulli L, Coppola A, Balestrini S, Striano S. The challenges of treating epilepsy with 25 antiepileptic drugs. Pharmacological Research 2016; 107: 211–19.Find this resource:

                                                                  Schmitz B. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on mood and behavior. Epilepsia 2006; 47(Suppl. 2): 28–33.Find this resource:

                                                                  Schmitz B. Psychiatric syndromes related to antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 1999; 40(Suppl. 10): 65–70.Find this resource:

                                                                  Schwartz TL, Nihalani N. Tiagabine in anxiety disorders. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 2006; 7: 1977–87.Find this resource:

                                                                  Scott DF. The discovery of anti-epileptic drugs. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 1992; 1: 111–18.Find this resource:

                                                                  Shinn AK, Greenfield SF. Topiramate in the treatment of substance-related disorders: A critical review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2010; 71: 634–48.Find this resource:

                                                                  Shorvon SD. Drug treatment of epilepsy in the century of the ILAE: The first 50 years, 1909–1958. Epilepsia 2009; 50(Suppl. 3): 69–92.Find this resource:

                                                                  Shorvon SD. Drug treatment of epilepsy in the century of the ILAE: The second 50 years, 1959–2009. Epilepsia 2009; 50(Suppl. 3): 93–130.Find this resource:

                                                                  Singh M, Keer D, Klimas J, Wood E, Werb D. Topiramate for cocaine dependence: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Addiction 2016; 111: 1337–46.Find this resource:

                                                                  Siniscalchi A, Gallelli L, Russo E, De Sarro G. A review on antiepileptic drugs-dependent fatigue: Pathophysiological mechanisms and incidence. European Journal of Pharmacology 2013; 718: 10–16.Find this resource:

                                                                  Spina E, Perugi G. Antiepileptic drugs: Indications other than epilepsy. Epileptic Disorders 2004; 6: 57–75.Find this resource:

                                                                  Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Lowe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006; 166: 1092–7.Find this resource:

                                                                  Stahl SM, Porreca F, Taylor CP, Cheung R, Thorpe AJ, Clair A. The diverse therapeutic actions of pregabalin: is a single mechanism responsible for several pharmacological activities? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 2013; 34: 332–9.Find this resource:

                                                                  Tomson T, Battino D. Teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs. Lancet Neurology 2012; 11: 803–13.Find this resource:

                                                                  Uguz F, Sharma V. Mood stabilizers during breastfeeding: A systematic review of the recent literature. Bipolar Disorders 2016; 18: 325–33.Find this resource:

                                                                  Vajda FJ, Dodd S, Horgan D. Lamotrigine in epilepsy, pregnancy and psychiatry: a drug for all seasons? Journal of Clinical Neurosciences 2013; 20: 13–16.Find this resource:

                                                                  Vajda FJE, Eadie MJ.Perucca P, Mula M. The clinical pharmacology of traditional antiepileptic drugs. Epileptic Disorders 2014; 16: 395–408.Find this resource:

                                                                    Vasudev A, Macritchie K, Rao SK, Geddes J, Young AH. Tiagabine for acute affective episodes in bipolar disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012; 12: CD004694.Find this resource:

                                                                      Vasudev A, Macritchie K, Rao SN, Geddes J, Young AH. Tiagabine in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011; 12: CD005173.Find this resource:

                                                                        Vasudev A, Macritchie K, Vasudev K, Watson S, Geddes J, Young AH. Oxcarbazepine for acute affective episodes in bipolar disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011; 12: CD004857.Find this resource:

                                                                          Vigo DV, Baldessarini RJ. Anticonvulsants in the treatment of major depressive disorder: An overview. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 2009; 17: 231–41.Find this resource:

                                                                          Villari V, Rocca P, Frieri T, Bogetto F. Psychiatric symptoms related to the use of lamotrigine: A review of the literature. Functional Neurology 2008; 23: 133–6.Find this resource:

                                                                          Wang HR, Woo YS, Bahk WM. Potential role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2014; 68: 723–32.Find this resource:

                                                                          Williams JW Jr, Ranney L, Morgan LC, Whitener L. How reviews covered the unfolding scientific story of gabapentin for bipolar disorder. General Hospital Psychiatry 2009; 31: 279–87.Find this resource:

                                                                          Witt J-A, Helmstaedter C. Monitoring the cognitive effects of antiepileptic pharmacotherapy: Approaching the individual patient. Epilepsy & Behavior 2013; 26: 450–6.Find this resource:

                                                                          Yasiry Z, Shorvon SD. How phenobarbital revolutionized epilepsy therapy: The story of phenobarbital therapy in epilepsy in the last 100 years. Epilepsia 2012; 53(Suppl. 8): 26–39.Find this resource:

                                                                          Zaccara G, Perucca E. Interactions between antiepileptic drugs, and between antiepileptic drugs and other drugs. Epileptic Disorders 2014; 16: 409–31.Find this resource:

                                                                            Zhuo C, Jiang R, Li G, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of second and third generation anti-epileptic drugs in refractory epilepsy: A network meta-analysis. Scientific Reports 2017; 7: 2535.Find this resource: