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A life course approach to understanding the association between depression and type 2 diabetes 

A life course approach to understanding the association between depression and type 2 diabetes
Chapter:
A life course approach to understanding the association between depression and type 2 diabetes
Author(s):

Khalida Ismail

, Calum D. Moulton

, Andrea Danese

, and Brenda W. Penninx

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198789284.003.0002
Page of

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date: 08 April 2020

The relationship between depression and type 2 diabetes is bidirectional and poorly explained by behavioural factors alone. Chronic activation of the innate immune system provides a promising mechanism by which both conditions could develop concurrently across the life course. Genetically, overlap between depression and type 2 diabetes has been reported by twin studies, although not yet at the genome-wide significance level. In utero, activation of inflammatory processes may impact on neurodevelopment of appetite and mood regulation. In early childhood, prolonged adversity is associated with subsequent elevated inflammation, depression, and obesity, which may be amplified by unhealthy lifestyle choices in adolescence. Finally, prolonged low socioeconomic status into adulthood is associated with chronically elevated inflammation and incident type 2 diabetes. In sum, a lifespan approach to the comorbidity of depression and type 2 diabetes offers novel opportunities for timely intervention and even for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes.

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