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Models, risks, and protections 

Models, risks, and protections
Models, risks, and protections

Patricia Casey

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date: 01 December 2021

Several explanatory models have been proposed for AD. The stress model is the current model and the one on which the ICD-11 criteria will be based. Others include a crisis model, a biological model, and a transactional-cognitive model. The research on the risk and protective factors is sparse and some studies are poorly designed owing to inadequate confounder control. The presence of a stressor is essential, and it can be a common event such as relationship breakdown or more traumatic stressors that have come to be associated with PTSD. Personality disorder does not appear to be a specific risk factor but certain personality dimensions have been identified as increasing vulnerability. Maladaptive coping strategies, poor social supports, and childhood trauma have also been identified. Resilience is a protective factor. Thus, the variables that increase or decrease risk are similar to those identified for other common psychiatric disorders, but better-designed studies are required in the future.

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