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Amendments and Updates 

Amendments and Updates
Author(s):

A. John Camm

, Thomas F. Lüscher

, Gerald Maurer

, and Patrick W. Serruys

Page of

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date: 27 September 2021

Updates

30th July 2020

Updates

  1. 2.4 Development of the ventricles and valves

  2. 2.5 Development of the cardiac conduction system

  3. 2.6 Epicardial and coronary vascular development

  4. 3.5 The heart as a functional unit

  5. 3.8 Functional anatomy of left heart valves

  6. 3.9 Functional anatomy of right heart valves

  7. 4.1 The heart as a pump: governing principles

  8. 4.9 The ageing heart

  9. 5.1 Renin–angiotensin system and neprilysin

  10. 8.3 Ventricular hypertrophy

  11. 12.7 Computed tomography for cardiac interventions

  12. 16.1 Introduction

  13. 16.6 Monogenic and oligogenic cardiovascular diseases: genetics of arrhythmias—long QT syndrome

  14. 16.14 Genetics of cardiomyopathies: arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

  15. 16.18 Genetics of CV diseases: Structural diseases of the heart - Genetics of congenital heart diseases

  16. 16.20 Complex cardiovascular diseases: atherosclerosis—genetic factors

  17. 17.24 Aortic stenosis and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction

  18. 18.2 Cardiovascular risk estimation at the individual level

  19. 29.8 Diagnosis and risk stratification of acute coronary syndromes

  20. 30.6 Clinical presentation of takotsubo syndrome

  21. 30.10 Management of takotsubo syndrome

  22. 31.2 Pathology of stable coronary artery disease

  23. 31.20 Refractory angina

  24. 31.21 Chronic ischaemic cardiomyopathy

  25. 31.22 Microvascular angina

  26. 32.4 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: genetics

  27. 32.5 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: diagnosis and assessment of symptoms

  28. 32.17 Left ventricular non-compaction: diagnosis and clinical management

  29. 32.19 Myocarditis: clinical presentation

  30. 33.1 Overview of pericardial syndromes

  31. 33.3 Pericardial effusion

  32. 35.4 Mitral regurgitation

  33. 36.3 Prognosis and complications

  34. 37.9 Chronic heart failure diagnosis: biomarkers

  35. 37.35 Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: Pharmacological therapy

  36. 38.6 The sinus node: normal and abnormal chronotropic response and drug effects

  37. 38.14 Congenital atrioventricular blocks: clinical presentation, clinical evaluation, and management

  38. 41.32 Atrial fibrillation and hyperthyroidism

  39. 43.9 New techniques for risk assessment in sudden cardiac death

  40. 43.12 Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death in ischaemic cardiomyopathy

  41. 43.13 Primary prevention of sudden death in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

  42. 44.2 Blood pressure measurement in hypertension: definition and classification of blood pressure levels

  43. 44.8 Device based treatment for hypertension

  44. 44.9 Hypertension in specific conditions/co-morbidities

  45. 45.11 Screening for pulmonary arterial hypertension

  46. 45.24 Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis

  47. 45.29 Referral centres and patient education

  48. 46.12 Acute aortic syndrome: aortic dissection—ascending aortic dissection

  49. 46.23 Long-term follow-up in patients with aortic diseases

  50. 48.2 Preoperative evaluation: surgical risk for cardiac events and functional capacity risk indices

  51. 50.1 Introduction

  52. 50.2 Epidemiology and socioeconomic consequences of venous thromboembolism

  53. 50.6 Diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism and evolving imaging modalities

  54. 50.7 Prognostic assessment

  55. 50.9 Treatment: anticoagulation

  56. 50.10 Treatment: thrombolysis

  57. 53.7 Cardiomyopathies and heart failure in pregnancy

  58. 53.8 Hypertensive disorders

  59. 58.5 Heart Teams in grown-up congenital heart disease

23rd April 2020

Updates

  1. 2.1 Cardiac embryogenesis

  2. 2.2 The molecular basis of cardiac embryogenesis

  3. 2.4 Development of the ventricles and valves

  4. 5.9 Lipid-lowering drugs

  5. 7.4 Epidemiology and global burden of cardiomyopathy

  6. 7.5 Epidemiology and global burden of arrhythmias

  7. 8.4 Intraventricular conduction disturbances

  8. 8.7 ECG in syncope, palpitations, dyspnoea, and chest pain

  9. 8.8 The abnormal ECG without apparent heart disease and the normal ECG in serious heart diseases: two extremes

  10. 8.9 Ambulatory ECG monitoring

  11. 14.4 Optical coherence tomography

  12. 16.13 Genetics of cardiomyopathies: left ventricular non-compaction

  13. 16.17 Genetics of vascular disease: Marfan syndrome and aortic disease

  14. 22.8 Drugs

  15. 24.1 Introduction

  16. 28.4 Pericarditis and myopericarditis in HIV

  17. 29.5 Pathophysiology of acute coronary syndromes

  18. 29.7 Development of myocardial infarction

  19. 29.10 Treatment of ST elevation acute coronary syndromes

  20. 30.2 Incidence and definition of takotsubo syndrome

  21. 31.4 Myocardial ischaemia: definition and causes

  22. 32.28 Childhood cardiomyopathy

  23. 37.2 Definition, epidemiology, and burden of disease: HFrEF

  24. 37.9 Chronic heart failure diagnosis: biomarkers

  25. 37.17 Co-morbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF): anaemia/iron deficiency

  26. 37.27 HFrEF pharmacological treatment: ivabradine

  27. 38.5 Anatomy and physiology of the sinus node

  28. 38.25 Electromagnetic interference in pacemaker patients

  29. 39.1 Definition, epidemiology, classification, and pathophysiology

  30. 39.5 Orthostatic intolerance: orthostatic hypotension and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

  31. 41.14 Rate control: ablation and device therapy (ablate and pace)

  32. 42.6 Electrical storm

  33. 42.9 Polymorphic ventricular tachycardias including torsade de pointes

  34. 44.1 Epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypertension

  35. 44.7 Drug treatment of hypertension

  36. 45.22 Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart diseases

  37. 45.24 Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis

  38. 45.30 Genetic counselling in pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension

  39. 45.31 Risk assessment and treatment goals in patients presenting with pulmonary arterial hypertension

  40. 46.13 Acute aortic syndrome: aortic dissection—descending aortic dissection

  41. 46.17 Acute aortic syndrome: iatrogenic aortic trauma

  42. 46.19 Genetic diseases of the aorta: aortic diseases related to Marfan syndrome and other genetic abnormalities

  43. 46.20 Genetic diseases of the aorta: aortic diseases associated with bicuspid aortic valves

  44. 49.3 General aspects

  45. 50.11 Treatment: catheter-based intervention and inferior vena cava filters

  46. 50.13 Management of pulmonary embolism in patients with cancer

  47. 50.15 Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

  48. 51.4 Varicose veins

  49. 52.3 Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors

  50. 53.3b Aortic diseases

  51. 53.5 Ischaemic heart disease in pregnancy

  52. 53.9 Venous thromboembolism in the peripartum period

  53. 54.2 Ethnicity and cardiovascular risk factors

  54. 54.3 Ethnicity and coronary artery disease

  55. 54.4 Ethnicity and hypertension

  56. 56.3 Dementia and cardiovascular diseases

  57. 56.6 Comprehensive geriatric assessment in cardiovascular disease

  58. 56.7 Degenerative cardiovascular disease in the elderly

  59. 56.10 Special situations in the elderly: sport, physical activity, and travel

Confirmed up to date

  1. 2.7 Cardiomyocyte development from mid-gestation through preadolescence

  2. 3.9 Functional anatomy of right heart valves

  3. 6.2 Current targets of anticoagulants

  4. 6.4 Unfractionated heparin

  5. 6.5 Low-molecular-weight heparin

  6. 6.6 Fondaparinux and its derivatives

  7. 6.8 Reversal of parenteral anticoagulants

  8. 6.9 Vitamin K antagonists

  9. 9.1 Normal anatomy with a focus on the cardiac silhouette and the great vessels

  10. 10.11 Assist devices

  11. 10.16 Prosthetic valve evaluation

  12. 10.17 Pulmonary hypertension and the right ventricle

  13. 10.18 Echocardiographic assessment: diseases of the aorta

  14. 10.19 Atrial fibrillation, cardiogenic embolism, and tumors

  15. 16.4 Principles of molecular genetic testing

  16. 16.5 Basic principles of genetic disease

  17. 17.4 Aetiology, genes, and environment

  18. 17.5 Fetal circulation and perinatal programming

  19. 17.8 Cross-sectional imaging/modelling

  20. 17.13 Arterial disease in the young

  21. 17.30 Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

  22. 18.7 Settings and stakeholders

  23. 20.1 Acute ischaemic stroke: classification and diagnosis

  24. 20.2 Impact of stroke on heart function

  25. 20.3 Causes of cardioembolic stroke

  26. 20.4 Embolic stroke of undetermined source

  27. 20.5 Treatment of acute stroke

  28. 20.6 Closure of a patent foramen ovale for the prevention of stroke

  29. 20.7 Secondary stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation

  30. 20.8 Management of vascular risk factors and co-morbidities in secondary stroke prevention

  31. 20.9 Intracranial haemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation on anticoagulants

  32. 20.10 Atrial fibrillation and dementia

  33. 22.4 Erectile dysfunction as a marker and predictor of cardiovascular disease

  34. 22.7 Lifestyle issues

  35. 23.1 Epidemiological relationships between respiratory and cardiovascular diseases

  36. 23.3 Effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treatment on cardiovascular outcome

  37. 23.6 Sleep apnoea: definition, prevalence, and role in cardiovascular diseases

  38. 23.7 Sleep-related breathing disorders: classification and diagnosis

  39. 23.9 Beyond positive airway pressure therapy: experimental and non-conventional treatments in sleep apnoea

  40. 23.10 Atmospheric pollution and cardiovascular risk

  41. 24.6 Chronic heart failure and liver function

  42. 26.3 Pathogenesis: from acute rheumatic fever to rheumatic heart disease

  43. 28.2 Epidemiology of HIV-associated cardiovascular complications

  44. 28.6 Pulmonary hypertension: definitions, classification, diagnosis, and management

  45. 29.6 Thrombotic response

  46. 30.1 Introduction

  47. 30.9 Co-morbidities in takotsubo syndrome

  48. 31.3 Pathophysiology of the coronary circulation

  49. 31.21 Chronic ischaemic cardiomyopathy

  50. 31.22 Microvascular angina

  51. 32.2 Classification of cardiomyopathies

  52. 32.3 General approach to diagnosis of cardiomyopathies

  53. 32.12 Restrictive cardiomyopathy

  54. 32.27 Peripartum cardiomyopathy

  55. 33.6 Pericardial masses and congenital abnormalities

  56. 36.10 Surgical techniques

  57. 37.7 Chronic heart failure diagnosis: echocardiography

  58. 37.16 Co-morbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF): renal dysfunction

  59. 37.26 HFrEF pharmacological treatment: beta blockers

  60. 37.34 HFrEF other treatment: nurse-led heart failure management programmes

  61. 37.36 Patient monitoring in heart failure

  62. 37.37 Exercise rehabilitation in heart failure

  63. 38.2 Aetiology and epidemiology of bradyarrhythmias

  64. 38.3 Classification of bradyarrhythmias

  65. 38.11 Anatomy and physiology of the atrioventricular node

  66. 38.13 Atrioventricular conduction abnormalities and atrioventricular blocks: role of electrophysiology testing

  67. 38.16 Bradycardia in athletes: clinical evaluation and management

  68. 38.17 Cardiac pacing: basic concepts

  69. 38.23 Pacemakers in children and adolescents

  70. 39.2 Diagnostic evaluation

  71. 39.7 Recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope (version 2018)

  72. 40.14 Concealed accessory pathways and related tachycardias

  73. 40.16 Prosthetic valve evaluation

  74. 41.3 Mechanisms of atrial fibrillation: electrophysiological basis

  75. 45.1 Introduction

  76. 45.32 Conclusion

  77. 46.15 Penetrating aortic ulcer

  78. 46.22 Aortic tumour

  79. 46.23 Long-term follow-up in patients with aortic diseases

  80. 48.9 Specific diseases: chronic heart failure/hypertension

  81. 48.18 Perioperative monitoring: anaesthesiology

  82. 50.4 Pathophysiology of acute pulmonary embolism

  83. 51.1 Epidemiology and classification of venous disease

  84. 51.2 Imaging for venous thrombosis

  85. 53.2 Gynaecological, obstetric, and neonatological aspects

  86. 53.3a Congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension

  87. 54.1 Global perspectives of hypertension and cardiovascular disease

  88. 54.6 Ethnicity and heart failure

  89. 54.8 Ethnic differences in responses to cardiovascular drugs

  90. 57.5 Individualized valve therapy

  91. 57.6 Genetically modified animals as tools to personalize the study of arrhythmia mechanisms and treatment

  92. 58.4 Heart Teams in atrial fibrillation

  93. 60.6 Meta-analysis

28th November 2019

Updates

  1. 2.3 From heart-forming region to ballooning chambers

  2. 2.6 Epicardial and coronary vascular development

  3. 3.4 Normal atrial and ventricular myocardial structures

  4. 3.8 Functional anatomy of left heart valves

  5. 3.9 Functional anatomy of right heart valves

  6. 4.6 Cardiovascular response to exercise

  7. 4.7 Cardiovascular response to mental stress

  8. 4.8 The cardiovascular system during sleep

  9. 4.10 Alterations in cardiovascular physiology in pathological states

  10. 5.5 Positive inotropes

  11. 5.8 Fibrinolytic therapy

  12. 6.7 Bivalirudin and argatroban

  13. 7.9 Epidemiology and global burden of peripheral arterial disease and aortic aneurysms

  14. 8.1 Introduction

  15. 10.6 Three-dimensional echocardiography

  16. 10.12 Cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, and the transplanted heart

  17. 11.3 Coronary artery disease

  18. 11.9 Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in less common pathologies

  19. 13.1 Basic principles and technological state of the art: SPECT

  20. 13.3 Basic principles and technological state of the art: hybrid imaging

  21. 16.2 Genetic counselling

  22. 16.7 Monogenic and oligogenic cardiovascular diseases: genetics of arrhythmias—short QT syndrome

  23. 16.9 Monogenic and oligogenic cardiovascular diseases: genetics of arrhythmias—catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

  24. 17.7 Echocardiography

  25. 17.12 Long-term outcomes

  26. 18.7 Settings and stakeholders

  27. 22.2 Erectile dysfunction: definition and size of the problem

  28. 22.4 Erectile dysfunction as a marker and predictor of cardiovascular disease

  29. 23.9 Beyond positive airway pressure therapy: experimental and non-conventional treatments in sleep apnoea

  30. 25.2 Mechanisms of inflammation

  31. 26.3 Pathogenesis: from acute rheumatic fever to rheumatic heart disease

  32. 27.3 Surveillance for cardiotoxicity in patients receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy

  33. 27.4 Anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity: epidemiology, surveillance, prophylaxis, management, and prognosis

  34. 29.9 Treatment of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes

  35. 32.2 Classification of cardiomyopathies

  36. 32.8 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: prevention of sudden cardiac death

  37. 32.10 Dilated cardiomyopathy: clinical diagnosis and medical management

  38. 32.13 Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: genetics

  39. 32.14 Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: diagnosis

  40. 32.15 Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: management of symptoms and prevention of sudden cardiac death

  41. 32.16 Left ventricular non-compaction: genetics and embryology

  42. 32.20 Myocarditis: imaging techniques

  43. 32.27 Peripartum cardiomyopathy

  44. 36.1 Epidemiology and physiopathology

  45. 37.15 Co-morbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF): hypertension

  46. 38.12 Atrioventricular conduction abnormalities and atrioventricular blocks: ECG patterns and diagnosis

  47. 40.5 Differential diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardias

  48. 41.18 Rate versus rhythm control therapy for atrial fibrillation

  49. 41.23 Thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation: device therapy and surgical techniques

  50. 45.1 Introduction

  51. 45.32 Conclusion

Confirmed up to date

  1. 1.1 Approach to cardiovascular assessment

  2. 1.2 Cardiovascular symptoms

  3. 1.3 Cardiovascular signs

  4. 4.2 Cardiac electrophysiology

  5. 4.4 Regulation of blood pressure

  6. 5.2 Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists

  7. 13.2 Basic principles and technological state of the art: PET

  8. 14.1 Haemodynamic data

  9. 16.12 Genetics of cardiomyopathies: dilated cardiomyopathy

  10. 16.19 Structural diseases of the heart: syndromes affecting the cardiovascular system

  11. 19.1 Introduction

  12. 19.2 Dysglycaemia: definition, classification, and diagnosis

  13. 19.4 Cardiovascular risk assessment in diabetes and pre-diabetes

  14. 19.6 Special conditions: acute coronary syndromes

  15. 19.7 Special conditions: revascularization

  16. 19.9 Diabetes and arrhythmias

  17. 19.10 Diabetes and lower extremity arterial disease

  18. 19.11 Special conditions: kidney disease

  19. 19.12 Person-centred care

  20. 22.1 Sex and the heart

  21. 22.3 Asking

  22. 23.1 Epidemiological relationships between respiratory and cardiovascular diseases

  23. 23.3 Effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treatment on cardiovascular outcome

  24. 24.5 Intestinal absorption and drug levels

  25. 24.6 Chronic heart failure and liver function

  26. 25.8 Inflammatory bowel disease and the heart

  27. 26.2 Epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

  28. 26.6 Prevention and definitive therapy of acute rheumatic fever

  29. 32.18 Myocarditis: aetiology and histopathological diagnosis

  30. 37.34 HFrEF other treatment: nurse-led heart failure management programmes

  31. 37.39 Acute heart failure: diagnosis

  32. 38.13 Atrioventricular conduction abnormalities and atrioventricular blocks: role of electrophysiology testing

  33. 38.16 Bradycardia in athletes: clinical evaluation and management

  34. 38.20 Pacing for bradycardia: device features and algorithms and clinical impact

  35. 40.2 Epidemiology of supraventricular tachycardias

  36. 40.9 Sinus node-related tachycardias: physiological sinus tachycardia, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, sinus node reentrant tachycardia, and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

  37. 40.12 Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia

  38. 40.13 Accessory pathways-related tachycardias: Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome and atrioventricular reentrant tachycardias

  39. 40.15 Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia

  40. 40.17 Asymptomatic pre-excitation

  41. 40.18 Non-reentrant junctional tachycardias

  42. 41.9 Clinical investigation of patients presenting with atrial fibrillation

  43. 44.4 Secondary causes of hypertension