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Neurodiagnostic tools 

Neurodiagnostic tools
Chapter:
Neurodiagnostic tools
Author(s):

Rob Forsyth

and Richard Newton

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198784449.003.0002
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date: 21 October 2019

This chapter explains the principles of how best to use the main diagnostic tools in paediatric neurology in the context of evidence-based medicine. The description of neuroradiology includes the principles of DWI, SWI, MRS, ASL and fMRI, and the usefulness of ultrasound, CT and PET scanning; neuroradiological anatomy, terminology, common incidental findings and normal myelination patterns. An approach to white matter and developmental brain abnormalities is depicted. Neurogenetic testing discusses the capabilities and limitations of microarray for Comparative Genomic Hybridization (copy-number variants), gene panel testing, and whole exome and whole genome next generation sequencing. The chapter offers the theory, practicality and pitfalls of electroencephalography, peripheral neurophysiology and evoked potential testing. Common practical procedures are described, including lumbar puncture, muscle biopsy and shunt tapping with an understanding of the place of special investigations on CSF, blood, urine, and skin. The scope of neuropsychological testing is described.

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