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Focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis 

Focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis
Chapter:
Focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis
Author(s):

Claudio Ponticelli

, Richard J Glassock

, and Francesco Scolari

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198784081.003.0005
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date: 27 October 2020

Focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) is a generic histopathologic lesion, not a single disease entity, having a variety of morphological variants and underlying aetiologies and pathogenesis. The FSGS term is used to indicate that, some, but not all, glomeruli (focal) have a partial sclerosis of the tuft (segmental). It is absolutely crucial to recognize that these lesions may complicate a number of other renal diseases, and may be caused by a number of different factors, including hemodynamic changes, infections, neoplasia, drug exposure, genetic mutations, metabolic disorders, or prior inflammation. A diagnosis of primary (idiopathic) FSGS is arrived at when known causes are excluded. Since FSGS may be pathogenetically heterogeneous, it is not reasonable to categorize it as a disease diagnosis.

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