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Infections and inflammatory conditions 

Infections and inflammatory conditions
Chapter:
Infections and inflammatory conditions
Author(s):

John Reynard

, Simon F Brewster

, Suzanne Biers

, and Naomi Laura Neal

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198783480.003.0006
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date: 02 June 2020

This chapter covers all topics relating to genitourinary tract infections, including basic science and relevant microbiology. The commonest clinical problem of urinary tract infection (UTI) or cystitis is covered in depth, including investigation and management of recurrent UTI. The role of antibiotics both for treatment of active UTI and as prophylaxis is reviewed, along with alternative preventative therapies such methenamine and intravesical drugs. Common acute and chronic infections such as pyelonephritis, prostatitis, and epididymitis, and acute urological emergencies including urosepsis, urethral abscess, sepsis, and Fournier’s gangrene are described. Important chronic conditions including bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis, ketamine bladder, phimosis, and inflammatory conditions of the penis are explained. Less common, but important, exam topics such as tuberculosis and parasite infections (schistosomiasis) of the urinary tract are covered, along with their adverse sequelae. The chapter also explores the essential and highly topical subjects of`antibiotic stewardship and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms.

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