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Bladder outlet obstruction 

Bladder outlet obstruction
Bladder outlet obstruction

John Reynard

, Simon F Brewster

, Suzanne Biers

, and Naomi Laura Neal

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date: 01 August 2021

This chapter outlines the pathophysiology and causes of bladder outlet obstruction, along with diagnostic investigations and treatment options depending on the cause. Minimally invasive management of benign prostatic hyperplasia no longer includes thermotherapy or transurethral radiofrequency needle ablation, though these are briefly discussed by way of historical context. The new procedure of UroLift is discussed. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) has essentially replaced other forms of laser prostatectomy. Prostate artery embolization is increasingly used for troublesome prostatic bleeding. Management of acute and chronic forms of urinary retention are comprehensively discussed.

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