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Upper tract obstruction, loin pain, hydronephrosis 

Upper tract obstruction, loin pain, hydronephrosis
Upper tract obstruction, loin pain, hydronephrosis

John Reynard

, Simon F Brewster

, Suzanne Biers

, and Naomi Laura Neal

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date: 06 August 2021

This chapter covers upper tract obstruction, loin pain, and hydronephrosis. A comprehensive discussion of causes and management of unilateral and bilateral hydronephrosis is included. The pathophysiology of renal obstruction is detailed, including the physiology of urine flow from the kidney to the bladder. An overview of the management of non-pelviureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) ureteric strictures is included, including minimally invasive treatment options. The causes of retroperitoneal fibrosis are outlined, and this fourth edition includes the newer diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (causative in up to half of previously considered idiopathic cases). Common presentations, investigation, and management options are detailed, including both emergency management and longer-term treatments.

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