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Heart failure 

Heart failure
Heart failure

Faiez Zannad

, João Pedro Ferreira

, and Theresa McDonagh



Pharmacological management of chronic heart failure section updated

Table 3.1.4 updated

New section and table on dapagliflozin

Updated on 29 July 2020. The previous version of this content can be found here.
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date: 29 July 2021

Heart failure (HF) is a global pandemic affecting nearly 30 million people worldwide and is increasing in prevalence. Chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) results from impaired systolic dysfunction and represents about half of HF cases. The commonest aetiology is myocardial ischaemia. Chronic heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) is symptoms and/or signs of heart failure, with left ventricular ejection fraction in the normal range. Acute HF is characterized by a rapid onset of signs and symptoms of HF, requiring urgent treatment. Acute HF may present as a first occurrence (de novo) or, more frequently, as a consequence of acute decompensation of chronic HF and may be caused by primary cardiac dysfunction or precipitated by extrinsic factors, often in patients with chronic HF. The diagnostic, workup, and treatment options for these conditions will be summarized in the chapter.

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