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Heart failure 

Heart failure
Heart failure

Faiez Zannad

, João Pedro Ferreira

, and Theresa McDonagh

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date: 20 October 2019

Heart failure (HF) is a common condition, with an increasing incidence with age. Chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) results from impaired systolic dysfunction and represents about half of HF cases. The commonest aetiology is myocardial ischaemia. Chronic heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) is symptoms and/or signs of heart failure, with left ventricular ejection fraction in the normal range. Acute HF is characterized by a rapid onset of signs and symptoms of HF, requiring urgent treatment. Acute HF may present as a first occurrence (de novo) or, more frequently, as a consequence of acute decompensation of chronic HF and may be caused by primary cardiac dysfunction or precipitated by extrinsic factors, often in patients with chronic HF. The diagnostic, workup, and treatment options for these conditions will be summarized in the chapter.

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