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Caesarean delivery and human evolution 

Caesarean delivery and human evolution
Caesarean delivery and human evolution

Michel Odent

and Eric Jauniaux

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date: 07 June 2020

Since one of the effects of modern medicine has been to neutralize the laws of natural selection, it is plausible that, from now on, the human capacity to give birth vaginally will decrease. The time has come to prepare for a possible new phase in the history of our species when most human beings are born by caesarean section. This phenomenon raises questions about a possible evolution of Homo sapiens in relation to the modes of birth, and there is increasing evidence-based information on the impact of high rates of caesarean on modern humans from many different scientific disciplines, including epigenetics, metagenomic microbiology, and primal health research. All these disciplines present the perinatal period as critical in the postnatal development of human children. In the current chapter, the authors present the latest information on the impact of caesarean delivery on the encephalization quotient, the newborn microbiome, and the materno-fetal endocrinology system.

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