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Normal labour: second stage 

Normal labour: second stage
Normal labour: second stage

Janet Medforth

, Linda Ball

, Angela Walker

, Sue Battersby

, and Sarah Stables

Page of

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date: 26 September 2020

This chapter covers the second stage of labour, from onset through to latent and active phases. It describes the physiology and diagnosis of the second stage of labour for low-risk women. It considers the mechanism of normal labour which underpins the principles of care and conduct of a normal vaginal birth. The care of the perineum in line with the current evidence base is also described. Categorization of perineal trauma is given and the performance of an episiotomy described. The incidence and management of female genital mutilation are discussed.

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