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Neuromodulatory approaches for bipolar disorder: current evidences and future perspectives 

Neuromodulatory approaches for bipolar disorder: current evidences and future perspectives
Chapter:
Neuromodulatory approaches for bipolar disorder: current evidences and future perspectives
Author(s):

Andre Russowsky Brunoni

, Bernardo de Sampaio Pereira Júnior

, and Izio Klein

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198748625.003.0028
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date: 18 August 2019

Bipolar disorder is a prevalent condition, with few therapeutic options and a high degree of refractoriness. This justifies the development of novel non-pharmacological treatment strategies, such as the non-invasive techniques of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), as well as the invasive techniques of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). In this chapter, we provide a summary of the development of the techniques as well as the studies carried out with patients with bipolar disorder. Although many promising results regarding the efficacy of theses techniques were described, the total number of studies is still low, highlighting the need of further studies in larger samples as to provide a definite picture regarding the use of clinical neuromodulation in bipolar disorder.

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