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The management of treatment-resistant bipolar disorder 

The management of treatment-resistant bipolar disorder
Chapter:
The management of treatment-resistant bipolar disorder
Author(s):

Salih Selek

, Ives Cavalcante Passos

, and Jair C. Soares

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198748625.003.0023
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date: 23 August 2019

Treatment-resistant bipolar disorder is a challenging area in clinical psychiatry and both defining treatment resistance and managing it is difficult despite new emerging pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. This chapter revisits the definition in treatment resistance in bipolar and summarizes the general recommendations in treatment-resistant bipolar disorder by taking revision of the guidelines to ‘pole position’. Manic and depressive episodes are covered in different subtitles. A short description of the complementary and alternative treatments is also mentioned. Special conditions in treatment resistance including co-morbidities, mixed states, and substance abuse are discussed separately. Future directions are also addressed by both evidence-based and naturalistic findings. Final recommendations for mania and depression are discussed after each subtitle and illustrated with a figure to give readers a visual summary.

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