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Clinical features of gout 

Clinical features of gout
Chapter:
Clinical features of gout
Author(s):

Nicola Dalbeth

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198748311.003.0005
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date: 21 August 2019

About 60% of the variance in serum urate levels can be explained by inherited genetic factors, but the extent of the contribution of genetic factors to gout in the presence of hyperuricaemia is not known. Genome-wide association studies in Europeans have identified 28 loci controlling serum urate levels, although the molecular basis of the majority of these genetic associations is currently unknown. The SLC2A9 and ABCG2 renal and gut uric acid transporters have very strong effects on urate levels and the risk of gout. Other uric acid transporters (e.g. SLC22A11/OAT478, SLC22A12/URAT1) and a glycolysis gene (GCKR) are associated with urate levels. Environmental exposures such as sugar-sweetened beverages and alcohol interact with urate-associated genetic variants in an unpredictable fashion. Very little is known about the genetic control of gout in the presence of hyperuricaemia, formation of monosodium urate crystals, and the immune response.

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