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Haematopoiesis 

Haematopoiesis
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date: 05 March 2021

Haematopoiesis involves a regulated set of developmental stages from haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that produce haematopoietic progenitor cells that then differentiate into more mature haematopoietic lineages, which provide all the key functions of the haematopoietic system. Definitive HSCs first develop within the embryo in specialized regions of the dorsal aorta and umbilical arteries and then seed the fetal liver and bone marrow. At the single-cell level, HSCs have the ability to reconstitute and maintain a functional haematopoietic system over extended periods of time in vivo. They (1) have a self-renewing capacity during the life of an organism, or even after transplantation; (2) are multipotent, with the ability to make all types of blood cells; and (3) are relatively quiescent, with the ability to serve as a deep reserve of cells to replenish short-lived, rapidly proliferation progenitors. Haematopoietic progenitor cells are unable to maintain long-term haematopoiesis in vivo due to limited or absent self-renewal. Rapid proliferation and cytokine responsiveness enables increased blood cell production under conditions of stress. Lineage commitment means limited cell type production. The haematopoietic stem cell niche is an anatomically and functionally defined regulatory environment for stem cells modulates self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferative activity of stem cells, thereby regulating stem cell number. Haematopoietic reconstitution during bone marrow transplantation is mediated by a succession of cells at various stages of development. More mature cells contribute to repopulation immediately following transplantation. With time, cells at progressively earlier stages of development are involved, with the final stable repopulation being provided by long-lived, multipotent HSCs. Long-term haematopoiesis is sustained by a relatively small number of HSCs.

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