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Virus infections causing diarrhoea and vomiting 

Virus infections causing diarrhoea and vomiting
Chapter:
Virus infections causing diarrhoea and vomiting
Author(s):

Philip R. Dormitzer

, and Ulrich Desselberger

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0084
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date: 05 March 2021

Acute gastroenteritis is frequently caused by rotaviruses, human caliciviruses (noroviruses, sapoviruses), astroviruses, and enteric adenoviruses (group F): these cause much disease worldwide and considerable mortality, mainly in developing countries. Other viruses found in the human gastrointestinal tract are not regularly associated with diarrhoeal disease, except in patients who are immunosuppressed and in whom herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and picobirnaviruses can cause diarrhoea, as can HIV itself. Following an incubation period of 1–2 days, there is sudden onset of watery diarrhoea lasting between 4 and 7 days, vomiting, and varying degrees of dehydration. Other features include abdominal cramps, headache, myalgia, and fever. Treatment is supportive, mainly with oral rehydration solutions or—in more severe cases—intravenous rehydration. Continued feeding is recommended, with zinc supplementation in areas where micronutrient deficiency may be present.

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