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Nipah and Hendra virus encephalitides 

Nipah and Hendra virus encephalitides
Nipah and Hendra virus encephalitides

C.T. Tan

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date: 02 March 2021

Nipah and Hendra are two related viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family that have their reservoir in large Pteropus fruit bats. Both viruses are two new zoonotic viruses that have emerged in recent years. Both are of the Paramyxoviridae family, sharing many similar characteristics. Because of their homology, a new genus called Henipavirus (Hendra + Nipah) was created for these two viruses. Human disease manifests most often as acute encephalitis, which can be late-onset or relapsing, or pneumonia, with high mortality. Transmission from bats to human includes direct spread from consumption of food contaminated by infected bat secretions, and contact with infected animals; human-to-human spread can also occur.

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