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Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes 

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes

Jeremy Rees

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date: 02 March 2021

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are disorders caused by the presence of an underlying tumour, but not due to either direct or metastatic invasion, or to recognized metabolic or endocrine complications. They are thought to arise from an autoimmune response to ‘onconeural’ tumour antigens which are also expressed by cells of the central or peripheral nervous systems. Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are rare but important because (1) they often develop before the cancer has been identified, (2) serological testing for specific antineuronal (onconeural) antibodies may identify a neurological disorder as paraneoplastic and the results may suggest the location of the underlying tumour and/or predict its prognosis. In some cases, the identity of the antibody predicts an immunotherapy-responsive disease.

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