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Neurosyphilis and neuro-AIDS 

Neurosyphilis and neuro-AIDS
Chapter:
Neurosyphilis and neuro-AIDS
Author(s):

Hadi Manji

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0598
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date: 05 March 2021

Invasion of the central nervous system occurs early in the course of syphilis infection. Neurosyphilis causes a meningitis, a myeloradiculopathy due to pachymeningitis, gummatous (granulomatous) cord and brain lesions; endarteritis may cause infarction and a low-grade meningoencephalitis affecting the brain results in dementia (general paralysis of the insane) and in the spinal cord, a sensory ataxic syndrome (tabes dorsalis). The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapies has greatly reduced the frequency of these complications in patients with access to these treatments. However, newer complications are now increasingly recognized such as neurological immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, a compartmentalization syndrome (cerebrospinal fluid escape). This chapter looks at these and other important issues regarding the background, diagnosis, treatment, and outlook for neurosyphilis and neuro-AIDS.

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