Show Summary Details
Page of

Parkinsonism and other extrapyramidal diseases 

Parkinsonism and other extrapyramidal diseases
Parkinsonism and other extrapyramidal diseases

Elisaveta Sokolov

, Vinod K. Metta

, and K. Ray Chaudhuri

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 25 February 2021

The human basal ganglia is a complex functional organization, with important interconnections with the nigrostriatal pathway, which dominates the dopaminergic innervation of the striatum (caudate nucleus and the putamen). The principal clinical syndromes affecting it are Parkinson’s disease; other syndromes with parkinsonian features (including drug-induced parkinsonism); progressive supranuclear palsy; multisystem atrophy; dementia with Lewy bodies; neuroacanthosis; torsion dystonia; and chorea. Apart from the use of dopaminergic agents, several drugs have beneficial effects in the management of parkinsonism and other extrapyramidal diseases. Parkinson’s disease affects about 0.2% of the population, including 2% of those over 80 years of age. The main pathological feature is degeneration of neuromelanin-containing neurons and Lewy body inclusions in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra, which leads directly and indirectly to excessive inhibition of the thalamus and consequent bradykinesia.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.