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Hair and nail disorders 

Hair and nail disorders
Hair and nail disorders

David de Berker

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date: 03 March 2021

Nails grow continuously throughout life, except after exceptional physiological or traumatic events when they are shed. All other less disruptive influences result in changes in the colour, thickness, texture, and growth of nails, and may also affect the periungual tissues. The most common local diseases affecting the nail are psoriasis, fungal nail infections, periungual eczema, and viral warts. Trauma is a common cause of changes in toenails. Disease can affect hair growth by direct action on the follicle or by indirect effects sustained through generalized physiological disturbance. Clinicians might be asked to assess specific diseases of the scalp with implications for hair growth, or specifically to address pathological patterns of hair growth where there may be underlying systemic disease. Common diseases of the scalp include psoriasis, eczema, fungal infection, alopecia areata, and the scarring alopecias.

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