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Peter S. Friedmann

, Michael J. Arden-Jones

, and Roderick J. Hay

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date: 05 March 2021

Eczema is a characteristic pattern of skin inflammation that has many subtypes, with some induced by external factors such as irritants or skin sensitizers. Atopic eczema is due partly to a genetic susceptibility, which programmes altered immune responses and skin physiology, together with reactions to exogenous allergens and microbes, but several eczema patterns do not appear to have external causes. Management requires identification and avoidance of provoking factors. The inflammation is treated with topical steroids of different potencies, supplemented with moisturizers. Newer therapies include topical calcineurin antagonists, with a range of systemic therapies being used to control the most severe types of disease.

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