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Malignant diseases of the urinary tract 

Malignant diseases of the urinary tract
Malignant diseases of the urinary tract

Tim Eisen

, Freddie C. Hamdy

, and Robert A. Huddart

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date: 07 March 2021

Bladder cancer—the seventh commonest cancer in the United Kingdom and the fourth most common in men. Nonmuscle-invasive disease is usually treated by transurethral resection with postoperative intravesical chemotherapy with mitomycin or bacillus Calmette–Guérin. Local muscle-invasive disease in patients who are fit enough is usually treated with radical cystoprostatectomy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Metastatic disease is typically treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Renal cell cancer—approximately 3% of the total cancer burden. For operable patients with no distant disease, the treatment of choice is nephron-sparing (if possible) or radical nephrectomy. Metastatic renal cancer can behave in a very variable manner. Palliative nephrectomy may be required for bleeding or pain. First-line systemic treatment is with antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signalling. Prostate cancer—second most common cause of male cancer deaths in the Western world. Most cases are asymptomatic at presentation, being detected following measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or after digital rectal examination, although screening by measurement of PSA remains a contentious issue. Clinically localized prostate cancer is treated with active monitoring, radiotherapy, or minimally invasive surgery. Locally advanced disease is likely to progress and requires intervention, usually in the form of androgen deprivation therapy and radiotherapy. First-line treatment for metastatic prostate cancer is androgen deprivation therapy; second-line treatment may be with newer antiandrogens in combination with steroids and cytotoxics. Testicular cancer—affects predominantly young adult men in whom they are the most common malignant tumours. For most patients, initial management consists of an inguinal orchidectomy, with or without immediate adjuvant therapy. Standard treatment of metastatic germ cell tumours is with a combination of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin.

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