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Haemolytic uraemic syndrome 

Haemolytic uraemic syndrome
Chapter:
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome
Author(s):

Edwin K.S. Wong

, and David Kavanagh

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0496
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date: 02 March 2021

Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by the triad of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, and acute kidney injury. It is most often caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC-HUS), and any HUS not caused by this is often termed atypical HUS (aHUS). aHUS may be caused by an underlying complement system abnormality (primary aHUS) or by a range of precipitating events, such as infections or drugs (secondary aHUS). Management of STEC-HUS is supportive. In aHUS, plasma exchange is the initial treatment of choice until ADAMTS13 activity is available to exclude thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura as a diagnosis. Once this has been done, eculizumab should be instigated as soon as possible.

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