Show Summary Details
Page of

Immunoglobulin A nephropathy and IgA vasculitis (HSP) 

Immunoglobulin A nephropathy and IgA vasculitis (HSP)
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy and IgA vasculitis (HSP)

Jonathan Barratt

, and John Feehally

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 27 February 2021

Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the commonest pattern of glomerulonephritis identified in areas of the world where renal biopsy is widely practised. It is defined pathologically by IgA deposition in the glomerular mesangium accompanied by a mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis which may vary greatly in severity. Aetiology is uncertain, but abnormalities of IgA1 hinge-region O-glycosylation are consistently found. Clinical features—IgAN can present with (1) visible haematuria, typically in children and young adults, developing within a day or two of upper respiratory tract infection (‘synpharyngitic’); (2) asymptomatic nonvisible haematuria/proteinuria; (3) nephrotic syndrome (<5% of cases); (4) acute kidney injury (uncommon); and (5) chronic renal failure with up to 25% of patients reaching endstage renal failure within 20 years of diagnosis. Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a small vessel systemic vasculitis characterized by small blood vessel deposition of IgA that predominantly affects the skin, joints, gut, and kidney, with nephritis that may be histologically indistinguishable from IgA nephropathy. Management—there is no treatment known to modify mesangial deposition of IgA. Treatment options are mostly directed at controlling blood pressure and limiting proteinuria through blockade of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis. In the rare patient presenting with acute kidney injury in whom biopsy shows crescentic IgA nephropathy, a regimen such as those used for renal vasculitis and other forms of crescentic glomerulonephritis should be considered, for example, oral prednisolone in combination with cyclophosphamide.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.