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Renal transplantation 

Renal transplantation
Renal transplantation

Nicholas Torpey

, and John D. Firth

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date: 27 February 2021

Renal transplantation is the preferred option for the treatment of endstage chronic renal failure in patients for whom there are no major medical contraindications. In well-selected recipients, both life expectancy and quality of life are superior to treatment with long-term dialysis. However, as the dialysis population continues to grow, the gap between supply and demand for renal transplantation is widening. Immunosuppression—excepting for transplants between HLA-identical twins, immunosuppression is required to prevent rejection, but there is no clear consensus on the best immunosuppressive regimen. Most centres use an induction antibody directed against CD25 or a T-lymphocyte-depleting antibody (thymoglobulin or alemtuzumab), followed by what is now called standard triple therapy—comprising a calcineurin inhibitor (almost always tacrolimus), combined with either mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine, and steroids. Steroids are not infrequently tailed off rapidly in the early post-transplant period. Transplant rejection can be classified into four main categories: (1) hyperacute, (2) accelerated, (3) acute cellular, and (4) humoral. Complications of renal transplantation—this chapter discusses specific and nonspecific side effects of immunosuppressive agents, infective complications (including viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections), malignant complications, and other complications (including hypertension, accelerated atherosclerosis, and electrolyte, musculoskeletal, haematological, gastrointestinal, and cosmetic disorders) in detail. Prognosis—first-year transplant losses from rejection have been dramatically reduced from about 40% in the 1970s to 5%. However, the rate of chronic graft loss remains at about 4% per year. The commonest cause of insidious late graft failure is probably chronic antibody-mediated rejection, frequently associated with poor adherence to immunosuppression. Calcineurin toxicity may also contribute. A major focus of research is to identify non-nephrotoxic immunosuppressive agents able to suppress antibody-mediated rejection.

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