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Andrew J. Barr

, and Philip G. Conaghan

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date: 07 March 2021

Clinical osteoarthritis (OA) is a syndrome of joint pain associated with structural deterioration of synovial joints that over time involves the whole joint organ. It is the most common form of arthritis and a leading cause of chronic pain, disability, and socioeconomic burden. Affected individuals report pain (especially on weight bearing) and joint stiffness leading to loss of muscle strength and poor joint function. This results in reduced participation in valued activities, low mood, sleep disturbance, and poor quality of life. The aetiology of joint deterioration, pain, and the interaction of the two remains unclear. OA is associated with a variety of both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors including obesity, age, gender, occupational injury, trauma, and genetic predisposition. Obesity is the strongest potentially modifiable risk factor.

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