Show Summary Details
Page of

Disorders of the thoracic cage and diaphragm 

Disorders of the thoracic cage and diaphragm
Chapter:
Disorders of the thoracic cage and diaphragm
Author(s):

John M. Shneerson

, and Michael I. Polkey

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0437
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 07 March 2021

Disorders of the thoracic skeleton can lead to a severe restrictive ventilatory defect, the risk of respiratory failure being highest with (1) scoliosis—particularly if the following characteristics are present: early onset, severe angulation, high in the thorax, respiratory muscle weakness, low vital capacity; (2) kyphosis—but only if of very sharp angulation (gibbus), most commonly seen following tuberculous osteomyelitis; and (3) after thoracoplasty—historically performed as treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. While not a disorder of the skeleton, a similar pathophysiological pattern is seen in extreme obesity, and this is the fastest growing cause of referral to home ventilation centres. Arterial blood gases and quality of life can both be readily improved with non-invasive ventilation, usually using a nasal or face mask. Survival in most skeletal disorders after starting ventilation leads to apical bullae, pleural thickening/effusions, and cricoarytenoid arthritis, but rarely causes respiratory failure in the absence of other comorbidities.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.