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Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage 

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage
Chapter:
Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage
Author(s):

S. J. Bourke

, and G.P. Spickett

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0421
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date: 26 February 2021

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage is characterized by acute respiratory failure, diffuse air space shadowing on the chest radiograph, haemoptysis, and anaemia. There are many different causes including immune-mediated diseases (notably pulmonary vasculitis, connective tissue diseases, and Goodpasture’s syndrome) and non-immune-mediated disease (cardiac failure, infection, coagulation disorders, thrombolytic therapy, toxins, and barotrauma). Prompt identification of the underlying cause is important in directing specific treatments. Goodpasture’s syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by alveolar haemorrhage and glomerulonephritis due to antibasement membrane antibodies. Renal failure is usually the dominant feature, but alveolar haemorrhage can precede renal involvement. Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis is a rare disorder of unknown cause with recurrent alveolar bleeding, which may provoke pulmonary fibrosis, and anaemia.

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