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Pulmonary complications of HIV infection 

Pulmonary complications of HIV infection
Chapter:
Pulmonary complications of HIV infection
Author(s):

Julia Choy

, and Anton Pozniak

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0406
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date: 03 March 2021

Most HIV-positive individuals will experience at least one significant episode of pulmonary disease during their lifetime. The immune status of the HIV-infected patient is the primary determinant of the risk of developing specific pulmonary diseases: those with advanced immunosuppression are predisposed to opportunistic infections and malignancies; those with mild or no immunosuppression are at greater risk of conditions including community-acquired pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, and interstitial lung disease. Pulmonary infections related to HIV infection with severe immunosuppression include Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, tuberculosis, and fungal infections including aspergillosis and cryptococcosis. Lung malignancies related to HIV infection with severe immunosuppression include Kaposi’s sarcoma and lymphoma, which is typically non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma or primary effusion lymphoma (also caused by HHV-8).

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