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Bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy, and tissue biopsy 

Bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy, and tissue biopsy
Bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy, and tissue biopsy

Pallav L. Shah

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date: 05 March 2021

Direct visualization of the airways by bronchoscopy has become an important tool in the diagnosis of respiratory disease since its introduction in Japan in 1966. The ability to visualize specific areas significantly improves diagnostic yield in comparison to blind procedures. Similarly, the diagnosis and treatment of pleural disease has improved significantly with the introduction of thoracoscopy, which allows the direct inspection of the pleural cavity. Tissue biopsy has also evolved, with more procedures now being performed with some form of image guidance. Bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy, and radiologically guided biopsy techniques provide different methods for visualizing and sampling thoracic lesions, the approach chosen in any particular case being based on several factors, including the anatomical location of abnormal areas, presence of coexisting pulmonary disease, presence of comorbidities, and local expertise. CT is useful in both selection and planning of the most appropriate sampling method.

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