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Acute cardiac failure: Definitions, investigation, and management 

Acute cardiac failure: Definitions, investigation, and management
Chapter:
Acute cardiac failure: Definitions, investigation, and management
Author(s):

Andrew L. Clark

, and John G.F. Cleland

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0348
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date: 03 March 2021

Presentations of acute heart failure fall into three overlapping categories: acute breathlessness and pulmonary oedema; chronic fluid retention and peripheral oedema (anasarca); and cardiogenic shock. Features on examination include tachycardia, hypotension, a raised venous pressure, basal crackles, and peripheral oedema. Auscultation may reveal a third heart sound or features of valvular heart disease. Initial management focuses on confirming the diagnosis and identification of the immediate precipitant (e.g. arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, decompensating valvular heart disease). Initial investigations include a 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest radiograph, full blood count, biochemical screen, troponin, and thyroid function. Natriuretic peptides are useful in confirming the diagnosis where clinical features are present and a normal level of these is helpful in excluding the diagnosis. All patients should undergo echocardiographic assessment early in the course of a hospital admission to assess left ventricular function and to look for underlying valvular heart disease.

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