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Epidemiology and general pathophysiological classification of heart failure 

Epidemiology and general pathophysiological classification of heart failure
Epidemiology and general pathophysiological classification of heart failure

Theresa A. McDonagh

, and Kaushik Guha

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date: 02 March 2021

Heart failure is a clinical syndrome caused by cardiac dysfunction, most commonly left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Patients with heart failure symptoms or signs and normal or near normal left ventricular function are often classified as having heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF), but there is no clear and generally accepted definition of this condition. Estimates of incidence and prevalence are heavily influenced by definition. Prevalence rises significantly with age, with a median age of first presentation in the mid-seventies. Longitudinal data suggests that the incidence of heart failure has remained fairly stable over the last few decades, but prevalence is increasing as more people survive cardiovascular disease earlier in life.

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