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Cardiac catheterization and angiography 

Cardiac catheterization and angiography
Cardiac catheterization and angiography

Edward D. Folland

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date: 07 March 2021

Cardiac catheterization/angiography is indicated for evaluation of patients with coronary, valvular, and congenital heart disease in whom diagnostic or therapeutic decisions cannot be made on the basis of non-invasive tests. Most patients presenting for cardiac catheterization have coronary artery disease: catheterization and coronary angiography are integral parts of interventional treatments for patients experiencing ischaemic coronary syndromes. Vascular access is usually obtained percutaneously from the femoral, radial, or brachial artery (for the left heart), or the femoral, internal jugular, or brachial/antecubital vein (for the right heart). Cardiac catheterization/angiography permits interventions, particularly coronary angioplasty/stenting, that are of great and increasing therapeutic importance. This chapter reviews the diagnostic applications of cardiac catheterization and angiography.

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