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Gastrointestinal lymphomas 

Gastrointestinal lymphomas
Chapter:
Gastrointestinal lymphomas
Author(s):

Kikkeri N. Naresh

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0301
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date: 26 February 2021

Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma is the most common extranodal lymphoma and is almost exclusively of non-Hodgkin type. It is defined as lymphoma that has presented with the main bulk of disease in the gastrointestinal tract, with or without involvement of contiguous lymph nodes. MALT lymphoma is an indolent B-cell lymphoma whose histology recapitulates the features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). It most commonly affects the stomach, presenting with nonspecific dyspepsia. Most cases appear to be driven by Helicobacter pylori, with 75% regressing following eradication of the organism with appropriate antibiotics. Deeply invasive lymphomas and those with adverse histological or cytogenetic features are unlikely to respond. Mantle cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma are adult B-cell lymphomas that can present as gastrointestinal lymphomas. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is an aggressive lymphoma that is relatively frequently encountered in gastrointestinal locations. Burkitt’s lymphoma is also an aggressive B-cell lymphoma, and is the most frequent childhood gastrointestinal lymphoma. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is an intestinal lymphoma of intraepithelial T lymphocytes that occurs most commonly in the jejunum or ileum and is associated with coeliac disease. It presents with abdominal pain, often due to intestinal perforation. The prognosis is usually poor, with death frequently resulting from abdominal complications in patients already weakened by uncontrolled malabsorption.

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