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Diseases of the oesophagus 

Diseases of the oesophagus
Diseases of the oesophagus

Rebecca C. Fitzgerald

, and Massimiliano di Pietro

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date: 07 March 2021

Defective conduit function of the oesophagus readily induces clinical symptoms and may have serious effects on nutrition and the lungs, the latter resulting from aspiration of gastro-oesophageal contents. Oesophageal pain and dysphagia caused by diseases of the muscular layer or epithelium are often disabling. The oesophagus is exposed to numerous hostile environments including carcinogens in food or those derived from tobacco, betel nuts, and other ingested sources and hence carcinomas can occur. Chronic reflux disease from exposure to corrosive upper gastrointestinal secretions is also associated with malignant disease—adenocarcinoma—as well as benign stricture formation related to the action of pepsin.

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