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Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy 

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

James E. East

, and George J. Webster

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date: 03 March 2021

Endoscopy is the procedure of choice in patients with retrosternal or upper abdominal symptoms who require investigation, and is essential in significant gastrointestinal bleeding to identify and—in most cases—treat the cause, with various therapeutic methods possible for erosions, ulcers, and oesophageal varices. More recent developments in the practice of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy include the use of enteroscopy for direct vision of the small bowel, video capsule endoscopy for diagnosis of obscure bleeding lesions, and an expanding range of minimally invasive therapeutic techniques. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is the standard of care for the removal of gallstones from the common bile duct, and palliating obstructing pancreatobiliary tumours.

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