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Pancreatic endocrine disorders and multiple endocrine neoplasia 

Pancreatic endocrine disorders and multiple endocrine neoplasia
Pancreatic endocrine disorders and multiple endocrine neoplasia

B. Khoo

, T.M. Tan

, and S.R. Bloom

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date: 07 March 2021

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (islet-cell tumours) are rare and usually sporadic, but they may be associated with complex familial endocrine cancer syndromes. Recognized types of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are those that are non-functioning (often advanced at diagnosis and presenting with mass effects due to the absence of symptoms attributable to hormone hypersecretion), insulinoma (the most frequent type), and others including gastrinoma, VIPoma, and glucagonoma. The following should be considered in addition to the symptomatic treatments: surgical resection—the only curative treatment, but not possible in many cases; tyrosine kinase inhibitors which inhibit specific kinases involved in tumour cell proliferation, growth, and angiogenesis; mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors; peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (radiolabelled somatostatin analogues).

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