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Lipid disorders 

Lipid disorders
Lipid disorders

Jaimini Cegla

, and James Scott

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date: 07 March 2021

High blood cholesterol and high blood triglycerides are causal risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of death in the developed world. Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism—cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins are transported with specific proteins in the blood as multimeric complexes called lipoproteins. Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism are effected by three principal physiological processes: (1) intestinal absorption of dietary lipid and transport in the blood of dietary lipid and lipids, principally derived from the liver (as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins) to peripheral tissues for catabolism by skeletal and cardiac muscle or storage in adipose tissue; (2) return of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants to the liver, hepatic synthesis of low-density lipoprotein, and the transport of cholesterol between peripheral tissues and the liver; and (3) reverse cholesterol transport by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) between peripheral tissues and the liver. Dyslipidaemias are disorders of lipoprotein metabolism in which there is elevation of total cholesterol and/or triglycerides, often accompanied by reduced levels of HDL cholesterol. Causes of dyslipidaemia—particular lipid disorders including polygenic hypercholesterolaemia, familial hypercholesterolaemia, combined hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, familial combined hyperlipidaemia, familial dysbetalipoproteinaemia (also called type 3 hyperlipoproteinaemia), and severe hypertriglyceridaemia, as well as secondary or aggravating factors. Management of dyslipidaemia—the key questions are: (1) what classes of lipoproteins and lipids are increased or decreased in the patient’s plasma? (2) Does the patient has a primary (genetic) or secondary (acquired) dyslipidaemia (often contributions from both influences)? (3) Is the patient at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or acute pancreatitis? (4) What other risk factors (e.g. hypertension or diabetes) are present? (5) What treatments might be used to address these abnormalities?

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