Show Summary Details
Page of

Lipid disorders 

Lipid disorders
Chapter:
Lipid disorders
Author(s):

Jaimini Cegla

, and James Scott

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0232
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 07 March 2021

High blood cholesterol and high blood triglycerides are causal risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of death in the developed world. Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism—cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins are transported with specific proteins in the blood as multimeric complexes called lipoproteins. Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism are effected by three principal physiological processes: (1) intestinal absorption of dietary lipid and transport in the blood of dietary lipid and lipids, principally derived from the liver (as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins) to peripheral tissues for catabolism by skeletal and cardiac muscle or storage in adipose tissue; (2) return of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants to the liver, hepatic synthesis of low-density lipoprotein, and the transport of cholesterol between peripheral tissues and the liver; and (3) reverse cholesterol transport by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) between peripheral tissues and the liver. Dyslipidaemias are disorders of lipoprotein metabolism in which there is elevation of total cholesterol and/or triglycerides, often accompanied by reduced levels of HDL cholesterol. Causes of dyslipidaemia—particular lipid disorders including polygenic hypercholesterolaemia, familial hypercholesterolaemia, combined hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, familial combined hyperlipidaemia, familial dysbetalipoproteinaemia (also called type 3 hyperlipoproteinaemia), and severe hypertriglyceridaemia, as well as secondary or aggravating factors. Management of dyslipidaemia—the key questions are: (1) what classes of lipoproteins and lipids are increased or decreased in the patient’s plasma? (2) Does the patient has a primary (genetic) or secondary (acquired) dyslipidaemia (often contributions from both influences)? (3) Is the patient at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or acute pancreatitis? (4) What other risk factors (e.g. hypertension or diabetes) are present? (5) What treatments might be used to address these abnormalities?

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.