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Injuries, envenoming, poisoning, and allergic reactions caused by animals 

Injuries, envenoming, poisoning, and allergic reactions caused by animals
Injuries, envenoming, poisoning, and allergic reactions caused by animals

David A. Warrell

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date: 02 March 2021

Attacks by wild and domesticated animals are increasing worldwide. They are best prevented by taking local advice about minimizing exposure. Injuries usually occur in places remote from medical care. They may involve extensive trauma, haemorrhagic shock, and a high risk of bacterial contamination. First aid consists of resuscitation, control of bleeding and perforating injuries, intravenous fluid replacement, and rapid evacuation to hospital for emergency surgery and treatment of infection. In hospital, specific antivenom (hyperimmune equine or ovine immunoglobulins) is given if there is evidence of systemic or severe local envenoming. Early anaphylactic or pyrogenic reactions and late serum sickness antivenom reactions are common but not predictable by hypersensitivity tests.

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